QIAGEN Multiplex PCR Kit
For highly specific and sensitive multiplex PCR without optimization requirements
For highly specific and sensitive multiplex PCR without optimization requirements
Cat. No. / ID: 206143
The QIAGEN Multiplex PCR Kit outperformed kits tested from other suppliers and ensures highly specific and sensitive multiplex PCR amplification (see figure " Successful 16-plex PCR "). The kit can be successfully used for various multiplex applications such as typing of transgenic organisms (see figure " Genotyping transgenic mice") and microsatellite analysis (see figure figure " Successful microsatellite analysis "). The master mix includes HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase for efficient amplification of multiple targets in parallel. Amplfication effiency is further improved by an innovative PCR buffer, also included in the master mix. The unique buffer ensures PCR specificity over a wide range of PCR conditions, minimizing the need for optimization. Suboptimal PCR can be improved with Q-Solution — an additive for the amplification of GC-rich templates — also provided with the kit .
Concentration: 5 units/µl
Recombinant enzyme: Yes
Substrate analogs: dNTP, ddNTP, dUTP, biotin-11-dUTP, DIG-11-dUTP, fluorescent-dNTP/ddNTP
Extension rate: 2–4 kb/min at 72°C
Half-life: 10 min at 97°C ; 60 min at 94°C
Amplification efficiency: ≥105 fold
5'–>3' exonuclease activity: Yes
Extra A addition: Yes
3'–>5' exonuclease activity: No
Contaminating nucleases: No
Contaminating RNases: No
Contaminating proteases: No
Self-priming activity: No >
The QIAGEN Multiplex PCR Kit is the first kit specifically developed for multiplex PCR and is provided in an easy-to-use master-mix format. QIAGEN Multiplex PCR Master Mix contains preoptimized concentrations of HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase and MgCl2, plus dNTPs and an innovative PCR buffer specially developed for multiplex PCR. The kit enables success in multiplex PCR at the first attempt. There is no need to optimize reaction conditions (e.g., the concentrations of primers, Mg2+, and Taq DNA polymerase) and cycling parameters due to unique preoptimized reagents included in the kit.
HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase is a modified form of Taq DNA polymerase and has no polymerase activity at ambient temperatures. This prevents extension of nonspecifically annealed primers and primer dimers formed at low temperatures during PCR setup and the initial PCR cycle. HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase is activated by a 15-minute incubation at 95°C which can be incorporated into any existing thermal-cycler program.
This special buffer contains an optimized combination of K+ and NH4+, as well as the unique PCR additive, Factor MP, which increases the local concentration of primers at the template. Together with K+ and other cations, Factor MP stabilizes specifically bound primers, allowing efficient primer extension by HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase (see figure " Stable and efficient primer annealing"). The innovative buffer maintains specific amplification in every cycle of PCR by promoting a high ratio of specific-to-nonspecific primer binding during the annealing step in each PCR cycle. Owing to a uniquely balanced combination of KCl and (NH4)2SO4, the buffer provides stringent primer-annealing conditions over a wider range of annealing temperatures and Mg2+ concentrations than conventional PCR buffers. Optimization of PCR by varying the annealing temperature or the Mg2+ concentration is therefore often minimal or not required.
Q-Solution, an innovative PCR additive that facilitates amplification of difficult templates by modifying the melting behavior of DNA, is also provided with HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase. This unique reagent improves suboptimal PCR caused by templates that have a high degree of secondary structure or GC-rich templates. Unlike other commonly used PCR additives such as DMSO, Q-Solution is used at just one working concentration, is nontoxic, and PCR purity is guaranteed.
The QIAGEN Multiplex PCR Kit is provided in a ready-to-use, preoptimized master mix for greater convenience. Use of a master mix saves time, simplifies handling for reaction setup, and increases reproducibility by eliminating many possible sources of pipetting errors and contamination — pipetting steps are minimized and tedious calculations are eliminated. Only primers and template need to be added to prepare the final amplification mix. The master mix can be stored at
2–8°C, allowing even faster setup of multiplex PCR assays. The streamlined, step-by-step protocol provided with the kit ensures fast and easy PCR setup. Reactions can be set up at room temperature, ensuring greater convenience and ease of use. HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase is activated by a 15-minute, 95°C incubation step, which can easily be incorporated into existing thermal cycling programs.
The QIAGEN Multiplex PCR Kit is highly suited for various multiplex applications, including:
|Applications||PCR, RT-PCR, multiplex PCR, typing, detection|
|Enzyme activity||5' -> 3' exonuclease activity|
|Reaction type||PCR amplification|
|With/without hotstart||With hotstart|
|Single or multiplex||Multiplex|
|Real-time or endpoint||Endpoint|
|Sample/target type||Genomic DNA and cDNA|
The concentration of the agarose gel for separation of multiplex PCR products should be appropriate for the overall size of products generated and can be adjusted for resolving small size differences between PCR fragments. For optimal results, we recommend the use of 1x TAE buffer for preparation and running of the gel. Use the general guidelines listed in the table below for choosing the percentage of agarose.
|Minimum difference in size of PCR products||Maximum size of fragments||Concentration of agarose|
|>200 bp||2000 bp||1.3%|
|>100-200 bp||1000 bp||1.4-1.6%|
|>50-100 bp||750 bp||1.7-2.0%|
|20-50 bp||500 bp||2.5-3.0%|
*Efficient separation of PCR products differing in size by about 20 bp is usually possible using standard molecular-biology–grade agarose. For separation of fragments that differ in size by less than 20 bp, we recommend using high-resolution agarose, for example MetaPhor® agarose (FMC Bioproducts). For more information, visit www.cambrex.com.
Both the quality and quantity of nucleic acid starting template affect PCR, in particular the sensitivity and efficiency of amplification. PCR sensitivity and efficiency can be reduced by the presence of impurities in nucleic acid preparations or in biological samples. These PCR inhibitors are completely removed when template is prepared using QIAGEN Kits for nucleic acid purification. Please refer to the Brochure "Maximizing PCR and RT-PCR success" for additional information.
The optimal primer–template ratio has to be determined empirically. If too little template is used, primers may not be able to find their complementary sequences. Too much template may lead to an increase in mispriming events. Generally, no more than 1 ug of template DNA should be used per PCR reaction. As an initial guide, spectrophotometric and molar conversion values for different nucleic acid templates are listed below.
Spectrophotometric conversions for nucleic acid templates
|1 A260 unit*||Concentration (ug/ml)|
*Absorbance at 260 nm = 1
Molar conversions for nucleic acid templates
|1 kb DNA||1000 bp||1.52||9.1 x 1011|
|pUC 19 DNA||2686 bp||0.57||3.4 x 1011|
|pTZ18R DNA||2870 bp||0.54||3.2 x 1011|
|pBluescript II DNA||2961 bp||0.52||3.1 x 1011|
|Lambda DNA||48,502 bp||0.03||1.8 x 1010|
|Average mRNA||1930 nt||1.67||1.0 x 1012|
|Escherichia coli||4.7 x 106*||3.0 x 10-4||1.8 x 108**|
|Drosophila melanogaster||1.4 x 108*||1.1 x 10-5||6.6 x 105**|
|Mus musculus (mouse)||2.7 x 109*||5.7 x 10-7||3.4 x 105**|
|Homo sapiens (human)||3.3 x 109*||4.7 x 10-7||2.8 x 105**|
* Base pairs per haploid genome
** For single-copy genes
Not necessarily. In a lot of cases, the uniquely formulated PCR Buffer provided in the HotStarTag Plus DNA Polymerase, HotStar HiFidelity Polymerase, Taq DNA Polymerase, HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase, and QIAGEN Multiplex PCR Kits provides optimal amplification of specific PCR products. The usefulness of Q-Solution needs to be determined empirically for each primer/template setup, by running parallel PCR reactions with and without Q-Solution under the same cycling conditions.
Q-Solution changes the melting behavior of DNA and will often improve a suboptimal PCR caused by templates that have a high degree of secondary structure or high GC-contents. For more details on the effects of Q-Solution on PCR amplification, please see the Q-Solution sections of the HotStarTag Plus DNA Polymerase, HotStar HiFidelity Polymerase, Taq DNA Polymerase, HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase, and the QIAGEN Multiplex PCR Handbooks.
The exact composition of the QIAGEN Multiplex PCR Buffer supplied in the QIAGEN Multiplex PCR Kit is proprietary. The buffer contains a specially developed balanced combination of salts and additives to ensure comparable efficiencies for annealing and extension of all primers in the reaction, thereby facilitating the amplification of multiple PCR products in a single tube.
The QIAnews article 'Highly efficient multiplex PCR using novel reaction chemistry' provides additional details and describes the advantages of this buffer in contrast to conventional PCR reagents.
Yes. Please see Table 3 in our brochure Maximizing PCR and RT-PCR success. We tested the effects of different inhibitory substances in a number of PCR systems. We also analyzed the effect of including different volumes of reverse transcription (RT) reaction mixtures in PCR. Please see the table below for a list of commonly encountered template impurities and their inhibitory effects on PCR.
Impurities showing inhibitory effects on PCR
|Sodium Acetate||≥5 mM|
|Sodium Chloride||≥25 nM|
|RT reaction mixture||≥15%|
The DNA yield obtained in a PCR reaction depends on the size of the amplicon, design of the primers, starting amount of template and primers, amplification efficiency, reaction volume, numbers of PCR cycles etc. Therefore it is really difficult to predict what yield to expect. Nevertheless, in our experience, approximately 1 µg is a good guess for most cases.
To determine the optimal annealing temperature for a PCR assay, a Temperature Gradient experiment should be performed. To do this, you will set up several PCR reactions in duplicate for the same primer/template combination, using the same PCR chemistry, and subject each of the reactions to a slightly different annealing temperature within a specified range. If a thermal cycler with a temperature gradient function can be used, you can simply program a temperature range for adjacent wells in the cycling block. If no cycler with a gradient function exists in your lab, you will either have to perform duplicate reactions at different temperatures in different machines (if available), or back to back in the same machine.