How can I avoid primer-dimer formation during PCR amplification?

Prerequisites for avoiding primer-dimer formation during PCR include the design of optimal primer pairs, and the use of appropriate primer concentrations. Complementarity of two or three bases at the 3' ends of primer pairs and complementary sequences within a primer sequence and between the primer pair should be avoided. Reduce the primer concentration to the lowest amount at which product amplification can be achieved by conducting test runs with primer concentration gradients.

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