Sample to Insight workflow
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Sample preparation (HBR)
Human biomedical sample preparation – highlights
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Sample preparation (ENV/AGR)
Environmental and agricultural sample preparation – highlights
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NGS for microbiome – highlights
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FAQs about microbiome research methods
What are 16S and ITS rRNA sequencing?
The most common method used for profiling microbial communities is sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Due to their universal distribution and conserved nature, the 16S rRNA and ITS genes are well-established genetic markers used for bacterial and fungal identification and classification.
The 16S rRNA gene consists of both highly conserved and hypervariable regions. The conserved regions serve as primer binding sites for PCR amplification of the variable regions and the variable regions contain sequences that can be used for bacterial identification and classification.
What is Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing?
In contrast to 16S rRNA and ITS sequencing, shotgun metagenomic sequencing covers the entire genome of all organisms present in a sample.
Shotgun metagenomic sequencing covers all genetic information in a sample; therefore, the data can be used for various analyses, e.g., metagenomic assembly and binning, metabolic function profiling and antibiotic resistance gene profiling.
What is Metatranscriptomics?
Metatranscriptomics studies the entire gene expression profile of microbial communities in natural living environments. It enables the quantification of gene expression levels and their changes in response to different conditions, e.g. physiological vs. pathological conditions in an organism.