RT-PCR kit for analyzing gene expression in enriched tumor cells associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cancer cell stemness and breast cancer
AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCell is used for the analysis of EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and cancer cell stemness characteristics in immunomagnetically-enriched tumor cells. The AndaTest EMT/StemCell allows molecular characterization of CTCs by combining the AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCellSelect with the AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCellDetect using the Combination of Combinations Principle (COCP). The AdnaTest EMT-1/Stem-CellSelect is a highly specific immunomagnetic cell selection system for enrichment of circulating tumor cells from peripheral blood. The AdnaTest EMT-1/StemDetect allows sensitive analysis of cancer-associated gene expression in immunomagnetically-enriched tumor cells by reverse transcription and PCR. The test requires the enrichment of CTCs from 5 ml blood followed by reverse transcription cDNA synthesis using the AdnaTests EMT-1/StemcellDetect and AdnaWash (a specialized wash buffer that reduces leukocyte cross-reactions prior to the multiplex PCR assay). The kit contains primer-mix to amplify cDNA target fragments of Twist, PI3Kα, ALDH1, Akt2 and an internal positive control (actin).
AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCell are intended for molecular biology applications. These products are not intended for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a disease.
AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCellDetect is used for the analysis of EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and cancer cell stemness characteristics in immunomagnetically-enriched tumor cells by reverse transcription and PCR, and is intended for research use only. The specificity of the detection is 90%. In spiking experiments, 10 tumor cells in 5 ml of whole blood were detected at a recovery rate of at least 70%. In addition, breast cancer-associated gene expression (Muc-1, Her- 2, GA733-2) can be investigated. The specificity of the detection is 90%. In spiking experiments, 5 tumor cells in 5 ml of whole blood were detected at a recovery rate of at least 90% and 2 tumor cells in 5 ml of whole blood were detected at a recovery rate of at least 70%, respectively. AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCellSelect is used for the enrichment of circulating tumor cells from peripheral blood.
The biology of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be assessed with various molecular biological methods (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, micro-chip technology). Detecting overexpressed target genes (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, EGFR, HER2) might be helpful in the context of cancer research strategies in transcriptional medicine; however, measuring global signal transduction pathways that are altered in cancer cell metabolism may lead to a better understanding of how tumor cells escape the immune system and resist drug treatment. Due to the fact that metastization requires a dissemination of tumor stem cells or tumor cells showing EMT, it is likely that such cells will be detected amongst the CTCs found in the blood. The AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCell Kit allows detection of EMT markers (PI3Kα, Akt2, Twist) and analysis of the tumor stem cell marker ALDH1.
AdnaTest technology uses an optimized combination of antibodies for cell selection in 5 ml whole blood and a combination of tumor-associated markers for the detection of tumor cells (EpCAM, CA15-3 (Muc1) and presence of Her2new receptors, as well as optional detection of estrogen and progesterone receptors by AdnaTest ER/PR Detect.
The AdnaTest uses a two-step process (Select and Detect) to generate results within 5 hours (see figures “AdnaTest workflow”). AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCellSelect enables the immunomagnetic enrichment of tumor cells from whole blood via epithelial- and tumor-associated antigens. Antibodies against epithelial- and tumor-associated antigens are conjugated to magnetic beads for labeling of tumor cells. Labeled cells are extracted by a magnetic particle concentrator (AdnaMag-L and AdnaMag-S), lysed and mRNA is then purified from these lysates (see figures “AdnaTest Select – Immunomagnetic cell selection with multiple tumor-associated antibodies labeled to magnetic beads”). In the second step, the isolated mRNA is transcribed into cDNA and can be amplified using multiplex PCR (see figures “AdnaTest Detect – Multiplex PCR of various cancer-associated tumor markers”). AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCellDetect contains Oligo (dT) 25-coated beads for the isolation of mRNA from the lysate of pre-enriched tumor cells. Reverse transcription results in cDNA that can subsequently be used as template for tumor cell detection and characterization by multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR provides tumor-associated gene expression profiles for a variety of relevant EMT markers.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors have been implicated in cell lineage determination and differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene is a bHLH transcription factor and shares similarity with another bHLH transcription factor, Dermo1. It is highly expressed in placental tissue and in adult mesodermally-derived tissues. Twist binds to the E-box elements of the Akt2 promoter, enhancing its transcriptional activity. It's likely that this transcription factor is related to the EMT phenomenon in cancer cells.
Pi3K activates the Akt1 and Akt2 Ser/Thr kinase. Activated Akt is responsible for proliferation and has anti-apoptotic function (inhibition of caspase 9 activity). There are several possibilities that can cause the Pi3K/Akt (mTOR) signal cascade to become unregulated in cancer. One possibility is the loss of PTEN activity, which is a regulator of Pi3K that leads to a permanent activation of the pathway. Since the Pi3K/Akt pathway is also activated via tyrosine kinases it may be affected in case of EGFR overexpression/mutation and HER2 overexpression. Another activator is the IGF receptor, which has been described in breast cancer to potentially shortcut ER dependency for proliferation if overexpressed.
Utilizing in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, it was shown (Ginestier et al 2007) that normal and cancer human mammary epithelial cells with increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 activity (ALDH1) have stem/progenitor properties. Overexpression of ALDH1 in tissue of primary breast tumors correlates significantly with poor prognosis. In breast carcinomas, high ALDH1 activity leads to increased self-renewal and tumors that mimic the heterogeneity of the parental tumor.
AdnaTest EMT-1/StemCellDetect contains Oligo (dT)25-coated beads for the isolation of mRNA from the lysate of pre-enriched tumor cells. Reverse transcription results in cDNA, which is subsequently used as template for tumor cell detection and characterization by multiplex PCR. The PrimerMix EMT-1 allows the amplification of three EMT-related genes and one control gene. The PrimerMix StemCell amplifies ALDH1, which is an accepted tumor stem cell marker. Breast cancer-associated gene expression can be determined using the PrimerMix BreastDetect. Taken together the different primer-mixes generate the following fragments:
Importantly, the AdnaTest is an open platform that allows the profiling of additional custom selected mRNA targets for comphrehensive biomarker discovery.
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