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Each Biology Store focuses on a disease, biological process, or pathway allowing you to source products specifically targeted at a defined research area.
Cell death can occur through 3 mechanisms: apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, results in controlled cell shrinkage and nuclear fragmentation via the action of...
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Common allergic diseases include atopic dermatitis and food allergies. Allergy is also a major cause of asthma, leading to airway hyperresponsiveness and chronic inflammation. An...
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Alzheimer’s disease, a form of dementia, is a progressive neurological disorder involving loss of memory and cognition. Alzheimer’s disease pathology reveals an excess of aggregated amyloid β...
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Mammals synthesize non-essential amino acids in vivo, and must obtain essential amino acids from their diet or intestinal flora. Of the 20 amino acids required for protein synthesis, 6 of them...
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Angiogenesis, the process of forming new blood vessels, is a hallmark in the pathology of many diseases, including cancer, ischemia, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory diseases. Inducers of...
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Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty material collects along the walls of arteries, forming a plaque. The plaque thickens and hardens over time, eventually blocking blood flow. Once...
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Brain tumors, uncontrolled cellular growth in the cranium or spinal column, arise from any of the cell types found in the brain, such as neurons, glial cells, astrocytes, or cells of the meninges....
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Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, classified molecularly into normal breast-like, luminal, HER2-like, and basal-like (also inaccurately called triple-negative) tumors. Intense research...
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Intracellular signaling pathways are often regulated by the second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and calcium ion (Ca2+). cAMP is an important second messenger in cellular...
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Cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of survival mechanisms resulting from accumulated mutations that alter gene expression. Cancer research continually identifies novel dysregulated...
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During oncogenesis, gene mutations or expression changes accumulate in pathways regulating specific aspects of cell proliferation. Biological pathways that, when dysregulated, allow cells to grow...
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The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase...
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Cell junctions are subcellular macromolecular structures connecting cells to each other or to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cell junctions include focal adhesions, tight junctions, gap...
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During embryonic development, pluripotent stem cells differentiate into 3 germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These germ layers differentiate into multipotent stem cells (progenitors),...
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Metazoans rely on cellular movement for important biological processes such as development, immune system activation, and wound healing. Cellular movement involves a wide variety of membrane...
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Cell surface markers are proteins expressed on the surface of cells that often conveniently serve as markers of specific cell types. For example, T cell and B cell surface markers identify their...
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Senescent cells are cells that no longer divide. These cells acquire a large and flat cellular appearance, decrease contacts with other cells, and increase adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In...
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All organisms exposed to sunlight possess a diurnal biological clock that controls a circadian rhythm of gene expression changes in most cell types. In mammals, for example, stimulation of the...
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Cytokines, small signaling proteins secreted primarily by immune cells, activate inter- and intracellular signaling during immune responses. Historically, cytokines were functionally separated...
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The internal scaffolding of the eukaryotic cell, known as the cytoskeleton, includes actin filaments (or microfilaments), intermediate filaments, and microtubules. These filaments all share many...
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Antigen presenting cells (APCs) ingest pathogens and digest their proteins into antigens. Pathogen engulfment activates professional APCs, causing the cells to migrate to lymph nodes where they...
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The World Health Organization reports 346 million people world-wide with diabetes. In addition, many people have pre-diabetes, a condition common in obese patients that often leads to diabetes....
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Daily exposure to environmental agents (reactive oxygen species, methylating agents, UV light, and other ionizing radiation) and normal physiological processes (replication and recombination) all...
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When a foreign compound enters the bloodstream, the body attempts to remove it using different metabolic processes. All compounds that enter the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract first...
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EGF (epidermal growth factor) and PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) are ligands that signal through their respective receptor tyrosine kinases. Produced by epidermal cells, EGF signaling plays...
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Most endothelial cells form the thin layer of tissue at the interior of blood vessels where they provide a nonthrombogenic surface to help prevent inappropriate blood clotting. The endothelium...
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Metazoans regulate biological functions in a number of ways, including via gene expression. Epigenetics is the term for regulation of gene expression, other than via changes in the DNA sequence....
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Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reciprocal mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) are key processes involved in both tumor metastasis and development. During EMT, epithelial...
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Estrogen receptors (ERs) are steroid hormone receptors important in development, growth, and reproduction. The 2 well characterized ERs, alpha and beta, interact with a variety of receptor...
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Cells attach to proteoglycans and glycoproteins on the surface of other cells as well as in the extracellular matrix (ECM) substratum via adhesion molecules to define tissue shape, structure, and...
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Cells, particularly in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, primarily store energy as triacylglycerols and catabolize them as needed. Alterations in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid...
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QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for fertility and pregnancy research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, and signal transduction...
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G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) regulate a wide variety of normal biological processes and play a role in the pathophysiology of many diseases upon dysregulation of their downstream signaling...
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QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for gastric cancer research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, and signal transduction pathway...
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Cells, particularly in skeletal muscle and the liver, store excess glucose as the polysaccharide glycogen, and quickly catabolize it again when necessary. Glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the...
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The process of glycosylation adds and removes sugar residues to and from oligosaccharides covalently linked to proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids. The functions of these...
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Growth factors are small peptide ligands necessary for a variety of signaling processes. Many growth factors are cytokines and direct the migration of immune cells. Other growth factor families...
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Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecular chaperones that regulate protein folding. Their name comes from their original discovery as genes and proteins that increase their expression...
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Hedgehog signaling is a conserved developmental pathway involved in tissue and organ morphogenesis. The pathway was originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, and mammalian homologs were...
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Hematopoiesis is the process of blood cell proliferation and differentiation from multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs are capable of self-renewal as well as differentiation into all...
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), infects and destroys CD4+ cells. As a result, the viral infection severely limits host...
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Homeobox (HOX) genes encode a group of homeodomain-containing transcription factors. This gene family was initially described in Drosophila melanogaster, where it was shown to control segmental...
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Biomarker applications are driven by the increasing need to define diseases, achieve earlier and better drug safety and efficacy, reduce cost and inform regulatory decision makers. Advances in...
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Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Patients present with progressive neuronal dysfunction, and...
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Hypertension is a medical condition defined as high blood pressure. Essential hypertension, or chronically high arterial blood pressure, remains one of the major risk factors for a variety of...
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Oxygen is required for aerobic energy metabolism processes such as oxidative phosphorylation. Low oxygen conditions activate the hypoxia signaling pathway in eukaryotic cells. One transcription...
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The NOD-like receptors (NLR) represent a major class of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that, like their cell-surface Toll-Like Receptor counterparts, are a central part of the...
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Acute inflammation occurs in response to cell damage resulting from infection or injury. During this process, cellular and plasma-derived factors encourage extravasation, which is the recruitment...
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Acute inflammation occurs in response to cell damage resulting from infection or injury. During this process, cellular and plasma-derived factors encourage extravasation, the recruitment of...
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The innate immune system initially recognizes pathogens via both the complement system and pattern recognition receptors. The complement system, also part of humoral immunity, is a family of...
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Three different families of pattern recognition receptors, toll-like (TLRs), Nod-like (NLRs), and RIG-I-like, initiate innate immunity, the inborn host response to common pathogens such as...
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The insulin signaling pathways play key roles in energy metabolism, growth, and cellular differentiation. The key ligands for these pathways include the hormone insulin and insulin-like growth...
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Interferons are cytokines released from cells in response to infection. These cytokines propagate immune responses. There are 2 major interferon families: type I (alpha and beta) and type II...
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The JAK (Janus kinase)/STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling pathway transduces stress-activating extracellular chemical signals into cellular responses such as...
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The kidney regulates blood pressure (via osmolality and electrolyte regulation), acid-base homeostasis, blood filtration and waste excretion, vital nutrients and water reabsorption, and its own...
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The term leukemia covers a spectrum of diseases called hematological neoplasms, but mostly refers to cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal increase in immature white...
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Cholesterol builds and maintains cellular membranes, and defines some of their physical and biochemical properties. Lipoproteins transport cholesterol and triglyercides throughout a mammalian...
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common form of liver cancer with a poor prognosis and low survival rate. HCC incidence is on the rise, and it is therefore a focus of intense research....
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The 2 major forms of lung cancer are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). SCLC cells secrete hormones, and commonly occur in the primary and secondary...
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Lymphoma is typically a solid tumor of mature white blood cells in lymphoid tissue. The major clinical and pathological subtypes of adulthood lymphoma include follicular lymphoma and diffuse large...
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The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are signal transduction pathways that involve a chain of 3 dual specificity kinases activating each other in series (MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK)....
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QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for miRNA expression research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, and signal transduction pathway...
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QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for miRNA function research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, and signal transduction pathway...
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In addition to their important function of regulating metabolism and energy production, mitochondria also perform other significant roles in the cell. Intracellular damage to the organelle...
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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine protein kinase, integrates responses from a wide variety of signals (nutrients, hormones, growth factors, and cellular stresses) to...
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Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, progressively destroys axonal myelin sheaths and oligodendrocytes. Symptoms primarily result from the loss of myelin...
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Neurogenesis is the process of neural stem cell differentiation into functional mature neurons. During this process neuronal transcription factors are activated, as well as developmental signaling...
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Activated transmembrane ion channels allow ions into or out of cells. In neurons, these channels promote neurotransmission by altering polarization of the neuronal membrane. A flow of positively...
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Neurotransmitters are signaling molecules important for propagation of a neuronal signal. Neurons synthesize and/or import neurotransmitters, and package them into presynaptic vesicles. Vesicles...
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Neurotrophins are a family of 4 growth factors that regulate neuronal development and function. Neurotrophins were initially discovered as inhibitors of neuronal apoptosis, but this family also...
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The NFkB family of transcription factors regulates multiple cellular processes including inflammation, immunity, and stress responses. The IkB family of inhibitors sequester these transcription...
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Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived free radical gas that acts as a second messenger. The 3 enzymes responsible for NO biosynthesis are endothelial, induced, and neuronal nitric oxide synthases...
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Notch signaling is a conserved developmental pathway involved in cell-cell communication, cell fate, apoptosis, and differentiation. The pathway was originally discovered in Drosophila...
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Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) both play a role in oncogenesis via opposite mechanisms. Proto-oncogenes promote normal cell growth. Occasionally, a mutation increases their activity...
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Minimizing toxicity remains one of the major barriers to bringing a drug to market and keeping it on the market. Almost 10% of drugs have been withdrawn from the clinical market worldwide in the...
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The bones of the skeletal system are derived from mesoderm. Neonatal bones are initially composed of cartilage and mesenchymal tissue, and gradually ossify fully into hardened bone by early...
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QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for ovarian cancer research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, and signal transduction pathway...
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An imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the detoxification of their reactive intermediates causes oxidative stress. Cells must respond to this imbalance before the...
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The p53 transcription factor regulates multiple biological functions, including growth arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. This gene is continuously degraded in the cell under normal conditions....
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons. Patients demonstrate movement-related dysfunction early on, with cognitive decline and dementia in...
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Cells respond via phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and AKT signaling to a variety of cytokines, G protein coupled receptor ligands, and growth factors as well as to cellular stresses, including...
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The polycomb and trithorax complexes maintain epigenetic control of cell type specific gene expression important for cellular identity via histone modification and remodeling. The polycomb complex...
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regulating lipid metabolism, cellular differentiation, and proliferation. The 3 PPAR isoforms share similar functions but different tissue distributions. The alpha isoform is primarily expressed...
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The single primary cilium found on the surface of almost all mammalian cell types is a non-motile sensory organelle with a 9+0 microtubule formation. Mutations in key ciliary proteins have been...
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Prostate cancer is a neoplasm of the male reproductive gland with a high mortality rate. This cancer presents primarily after the age of fifty. The molecular cause of prostate cancer is still...
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By reversing the phosphorylation of key regulatory proteins mediated by protein kinases, phosphatases serve as an important complement to kinases and attenuate activated signal transduction...
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Extracellular stimuli (such as growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters) provoke cells to change their behavior by expressing a different set of genes in a process known as signal...
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Voluntary movement, which is effected by skeletal muscle, contributes greatly to energy metabolism and its regulation via glucose uptake and storage by insulin. Complications from aging and...
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Stem cells are self-renewing cells with the potential to differentiate into other types of cells. Totipotent stem cells (zygotes) have the potential to develop into any embryonic or extraembryonic...
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Cells exposed to stress or toxins either in vitro or in vivo respond in a variety of ways depending on the stress and the cell type. Key front-line target organs such as heart, kidney, liver, and...
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The brain recalls immediate events via short-term memory. However, it must consolidate these events into long-term memory for later recall. Memory consolidation requires synaptic plasticity...
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T and B lymphocytes tailor their responses to each pathogenic insult as part of the adaptive immune system. During an infection, activation of B cells causes them to proliferate, differentiate,...
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Higher organisms have linear chromosomes, and DNA polymerases are unable to replicate the ends of these chromosomes. Telomeres, repetitive DNA regions of hexanucleotide repeats, protect...
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During cellular differentiation, a stem cell, which has the potential to become multiple cell types, will differentiate into a progenitor cell, next an immature cell, ending in a unipotent...
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The TGFβ superfamily comprises 4 signaling pathways: TGFβ, Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP), Activin, and Nodal. This family of secreted proteins regulates immune function, cell proliferation, and...
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The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily includes 29 receptors in humans that interact with a variety of ligands. These receptors fall into 3 major groups, depending on their cytoplasmic...
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The Toll-like Receptor (TLR) family of pattern recognition receptors detects a wide range of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites via pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). These PAMPs...
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Transcription factors directly control when, where, and the extent to which genes are expressed. Signal transduction pathways are responsible for either activating or inhibiting many of them....
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Cancer is a heterogeneous disease of rapidly dividing cells with multiple mechanisms of survival. In one such survival mechanism, cancerous cells metastasize to a location distal from the original...
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QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for tyrosine kinase research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, and signal transduction pathway...
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Ubiquitination, also known as ubiquitylation, regulates degradation of cellular proteins by the ubiquitinproteasome system, controlling a protein’s half-life and expression levels. This process...
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The unfolded protein response (UPR) recognizes and reacts to misfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Protein glycosylation enzymes and glycoprotein-binding chaperones in...
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The WNT family of secreted growth factors regulates the developmental processes of cell fate and polarity, as well as general cell maintenance processes such as homeostasis and cell cycle...
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Wound healing progresses via 3 overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation, and tissue remodeling. After cutaneous injury, a blood clot forms, and inflammatory cells infiltrate the wound,...
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