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Pathway Central
Find out more about your pathway of interest. Explore and order pathway-specific siRNAs, real-time PCR assays, or optimized protein expression vectors.
  • Over 500 cellular pathways available
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The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins that play important roles in a wide range of cellular processes including signal transduction, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and... Show details
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Apoptosis plays a critical role in normal development as well as in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases, such as cancer. It is tightly regulated, and a pivotal component of this... Show details
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Apoptosis is a physiological process of cell death that plays a critical role in normal development as well as in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases. The fundamental cellular mechanism... Show details
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The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved adaptor and scaffolding proteins expressed in all eukaryotic cells. It has evolved from a brain-specific protein to a family of ubiquitously expressed... Show details
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The activation of a naive T-Cell requires two signals: ligation of the TCR (T-Cell Receptor) with the MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)/peptide complex on the APC(Antigen Presenting Cell) and... Show details
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Plants have pores, Stomata, on their leaf surfaces that allow CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) in for photosynthesis and through which water evaporates. The specific cells that border and define these pores... Show details
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A cell must selectively translocate molecules across its plasma membrane to maintain the chemical composition of its cytoplasm distinct from that of the surrounding milieu. The most intriguing... Show details
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ABC (ATP Binding Cassette Transporters) comprise a large family of membrane-spanning proteins that are responsible for transporting a variety of substrates in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The most... Show details
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ABA (Abscisic Acid) is a plant hormone that plays important role during many phases of the plant life cycle, including seed development and dormancy, embryo maturation, cell division and... Show details
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The Actin family is a diverse and evolutionarily ancient group of proteins that provide the supportive framework to the three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic cells. It provides the forces that... Show details
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Actin Nucleation By ARP-WASP Complex For many cell types, the ability to move across a solid surface is fundamental to their biological function. Certain aspects of cell locomotion, such as the... Show details
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In response to a variety of extracellular stimuli, actin filament assembly at the leading edge of motile cells causes protrusion during cell crawling and chemotaxis, nerve growth and cell... Show details
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cAMP (Cyclic 3, 5-Adenosine Monophosphate)-dependent Protein Kinase, commonly known as PKA (Protein Kinase-A), is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of... Show details
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PKR (Protein Kinase-R) is a 68-kDa serine-threonine kinase that appears to play a primary role in mediating the antiviral activities of infected cells. PKR mediates apoptosis induced by many... Show details
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PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription, metabolism, cell cycle progression and... Show details
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PKC (Protein Kinase-C) is a cyclic nucleotide-independent enzyme that phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in many target proteins. PKC plays a pivotal role in mediating cellular responses... Show details
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Cell adhesion and migration is the fundamental feature of multicellular organisms during defense mechanisms, where leukocytes play the central role. They bind bacteria, parasites, viruses, tumor... Show details
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The development of the NMJ (Neuromuscular Junction) is triggered by Agrin, a signaling factor that is deposited by the nerve terminal at the site of contact with the muscle cell. Motor... Show details
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AHR (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor) is a member of the bHLH (basic Helix-Loop-Helix)- PAS (PerARNT-Sim) family of transcriptional regulators that control a variety of developmental and physiological... Show details
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Multicellular organisms eliminate supernumerary, damaged or harmful cells by programmed cell death. This process of cell suicide, defined morphologically as apoptosis, is critical for... Show details
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Asthma is a complex, chronic inflammatory lung disease that is characterized by epithelial shedding, airway smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, overproduction of mucus, and airway... Show details
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Cigarette smoking is a worldwide epidemic, and it is one of the main preventable causes of death and disability. Chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke alters a wide range of immunological... Show details
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Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene)/PKB (Protein Kinase-B) is a Serine/threonine Kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of Apoptosis and... Show details
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Sodium transport across the tight epithelia of Na+ reabsorbing tissues such as the distal nephron and colon is the major factor determining total body Na+ levels, and thus, long term blood... Show details
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Retinoic Acid, a lipophilic molecule and a metabolite of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), affects gene transcription and modulates a wide variety of biological processes like Cell Proliferation,... Show details
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Retinoic Acid, the active form of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), is a lipophilic molecule, and is known to affect gene transcription. Retinoic Acid is made available in the body through dietary... Show details
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ADRs (Adrenergic Receptors) are expressed on virtually every cell type in the body and are the receptors for Adrenaline, Epinephrine and Norepinephrine within the Sympathetic Nervous System. They... Show details
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The complement system refers to a series of proteins circulating in the blood and bathing the fluids surrounding tissues. The proteins circulate in an inactive form, but in response to the... Show details
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AD (Alzheimer’s Disease) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to amnesia, cognitive impairment, and senile dementia. Two types of lesions characterize the disease: SPs (Amyloid or Senile... Show details
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One of the key functions of catabolic metabolism is to maintain high levels of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and cells rapidly respond to any stress that threatens to lower ATP levels by arresting... Show details
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Androgens mediate a wide range of developmental and physiological responses and are especially important in male sexual differentiation and pubertal sexual maturation, the maintenance of... Show details
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Development of a functional cardiovascular system is dependent on the regulated proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells in two discrete processes known as vasculogenesis... Show details
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In order to initiate a specific immune response to an infectious agent, the immune system must be able to wade through the sea of molecules that are associated with pathogenic invasion and isolate... Show details
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Oxidative stress/Hypoxia is induced by a wide range of environmental factors including UV stress, pathogen invasion (hypersensitive reaction), oxygen shortage, etc. Generation of ROS (Reactive... Show details
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Somatostatin is a widely distributed peptide hormone that plays an important inhibitory role in several biological processes, including neurotransmission, exocrine and endocrine secretions, and... Show details
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Apoptosis refers to an evolutionarily conserved method of Cell Death that is characterized by specific morphological and biochemical properties. Morphologically, Apoptosis is characterized by a... Show details
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Apoptosis is a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number in tissues and to eliminate individual cells that threaten the animals survival. Certain cells have unique... Show details
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RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting diarthrodial joints. Inflammation and hyperplasia of the synovium are the hallmarks of RA. The normal... Show details
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Viruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to evade the host immune system and one of the strategies developed by HIV1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1) is to activate apoptotic programmes that... Show details
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The TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) family has an important role in inducing various biological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and death (Ref.1). TNF ligand family... Show details
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The signal transduction cascades regulating asexual sporulation in the Ascomycetous filamentous fungi A. nidulans (Aspergillus nidulans) can be divided into two phases: a Growth phase, in which... Show details
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The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation... Show details
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The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation... Show details
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The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation... Show details
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Atherosclerosis defines a disease in which the arterial wall becomes thickened and loses elasticity. It is a degenerative process in which fatty (lipid) material is deposited as Plaques... Show details
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ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein) belongs to a family of Kinases that have sequence homology to PI3K (Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase). ATM is a key regulator of multiple signaling cascades... Show details
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Vitiligo is an Acquired Skin Depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of Melanocytes, Exocrine cells, from basal layer of the Epidermal and the matrix portion of the hair bulb. Vitiligo is... Show details
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B-lymphocytes are white blood cells that secrete antibodies. B-lymphocytes are formed by bone marrow stem cells and migrate into the circulation and lymphoid tissue. If bacteria or viruses invade... Show details
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Lymphocytes are one of the five kinds of white blood cells or leukocytes, circulating in the blood. Although mature lymphocytes all look pretty much alike, they are extraordinarily diverse in... Show details
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Meningitis is an infection and inflammation of the meninges that affects the pia, the arachnoid and the subarachnoid space. It can be caused by growth of bacteria, virus, fungi, or parasites... Show details
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The ability of multicellular organisms to maintain cellular homeostasis is critically dependent on a balance between cell survival and cell death (apoptosis). The responsiveness of individual... Show details
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Members of the TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) ligand family play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis,... Show details
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The survival of organism depends on the accurate transmission of genetic information from one cell to its daughters. Such faithful transmission requires not only extreme accuracy in replication of... Show details
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The BCR (B-Cell antigen Receptor) plays a critical role in development, survival, and activation of B cells. The BCR is composed of mIg molecules (Membrane Immunoglobulin) and associated... Show details
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Neurotrophins are required for the development and maintenance of the nervous system. The neurotrophin family consists of NGF (Nerve Growth Factor), BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor), NT3... Show details
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The rate and strength of beating of the heart is under the reciprocal control of the Adrenergic (sympathetic) and Cholinergic (parasympathetic) systems. Increased strength (inotropy) in cardiac... Show details
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Steroid hormones are crucial substances for the proper functioning of the body. They mediate a wide variety of vital physiological functions ranging from anti-inflammatory agents to regulating... Show details
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Biotin (Vitamin-H) is essential for all living organisms and acts as a cofactor for a few essential enzymes of the Carboxylase family. Higher plants, most fungi and bacteria, are prototrophic for... Show details
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One of the most fascinating cofactors involved in central pathwaysof pro- and eukaryotic cell metabolism belongs to the B-Complex group of Vitamins known as Biotin or Vitamin-H. Biotin is a... Show details
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Biotin or Vitamin-H, an essential micronutrient for all mammals belongs to the B-Complex group of Vitamins. It is a water-soluble Vitamin used as co-factor of Biotin-dependent Carboxylases. The... Show details
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Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin found in all organisms that functions as a cofactor of Biotin-dependent carboxylases. It belongs to the B-Complex group of Vitamins and is an essential... Show details
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In unicellular eukaryotes like S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Biotin or Vitamin-H, a member of B-Complex group of Vitamins acts as a cofactor for a few essential enzymes of the... Show details
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The sense of taste plays a critical role in the life and nutritional status of humans and other organisms. Human taste perception may be categorized according to four well known and widely... Show details
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The circulatory system must be self-sealing; otherwise continued blood loss from even the smallest injury would be life threatening. Normally, all but the most catastrophic bleeding is rapidly... Show details
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The fate of neural precursors in the developing brain is believed to be determined by intrinsic cellular programs and by external cues, including the cytokines . BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic... Show details
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BRs (Brassinosteroids) are Plant Steroid Hormones that influence a wide range of important Developmental and Physiological processes, including Regulation of Gene Expression, Cell Division and... Show details
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Plant growth and development are ruled by environmental and endogenous signals, which are integrated through genetic networks that finally act on the division, expansion, and differentiation of... Show details
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The maintenance of genome integrity is essential to all life, but is particularly important to long-lived multicellular organisms, which are susceptible to cancer. DNA damage can take the form of... Show details
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Stmn1 (Stathmin-1) also referred to as Op18 (Oncoprotein-18) is a major regulator of microtubule dynamics. It is an evolutionarily well conserved 17 kDa cytoplasmic phosphoprotein that is highly... Show details
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Many proto-oncogenes participate in the regulation of apoptosis and closely intertwined with their actions are various growth factors and other genes that participate in the control of cellular... Show details
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Atherosclerosis, the pathological basis of CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) and Ischemic Stroke, is the commonest cause of death and disability in the western world. Atherosclerosis is a... Show details
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Ca2+ (Calcium) plays a major role in life and death within T-Cells. Elevation of intracellular free Ca2+ is one of the key triggering signals for T-Cell activation by antigen. The binding of... Show details
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Cells of S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) produce one of two Mating pheromones, A-Factor and MF-Alpha (Mating Factor-Alpha). Mating pheromones bind to their receptors like Ste2... Show details
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Metastatic tumor progression, the process by which tumor cells disseminate from their primary site of development, is dependent upon the disruption of both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions.... Show details
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D. discoideum (Dictyostelium discoideum) is an accessible organism for studies of signaling via Chemoattractant Receptors. Many features of the pathways in mammalian leukocytes are similar to... Show details
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cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3,5-monophosphate) is the first identified second messenger, which has a fundamental role in the cellular response to many extracellular stimuli. The cAMP signaling pathway... Show details
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C. neoformans (Cryptococcus neoformans) is a Basidiomycetous fungus and a significant human pathogen with worldwide distribution. Its importance as an opportunistic pathogen has increased in the... Show details
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cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3,5-monophosphate) signaling regulates appressorium formation in the Rice Blast fungus M. grisea (Magnaporthe grisea). Both saprophytic and pathogenic growth of M. grisea is... Show details
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The ascomycete N. crassa (Neurospora crassa) has defined asexual and sexual cycles. N. crassa is heterothallic and has two mating types, A and a. Under nutrient-rich conditions like Carbon, etc,... Show details
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Yeast Filamentous Growth is regulated by two conserved signal transduction cascades; a G-protein regulated cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3,5-monophosphate) signaling and a MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein... Show details
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The fission yeast S. pombe (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is homothallic and has a defined sexual cycle involving mating between haploid cells of opposite mating types. In S. pombe, two signaling... Show details
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During random locomotion, human neutrophils and D. discoideum (Dictyostelium discoideum) amoebae repeatedly extend and retract cytoplasmic processes. Some types of cell are highly motile. They can... Show details
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BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) Receptors are essential, beyond the egg cylinder stage, for myocyte-dependent functions and signals in cardiac organogenesis. ALK3 (Activin Receptor-Like Kinase-3)... Show details
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Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases that act in concert in a cascade triggered by apoptosis signaling. The culmination of this cascade is the cleavage of a number of proteins in the cell,... Show details
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Multicellular organisms have developed highly efficient mechanisms of cell communication to integrate and coordinate the function and proliferation of individual cell types. Gastrointestinal... Show details
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Human eosinophils are crucial effector cells implicated in a number of chronic inflammatory reactions, associated with bronchial asthma, allergic-inflammatory diseases, and parasitic infections... Show details
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CCR5 (Chemokine-CC Motif-Receptor-5) is a member of the chemokine receptor subclass of the GPCR (G-Protein-Coupled Receptor) superfamily (Ref.1). It regulates leukocyte chemotaxis in inflammation... Show details
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Members of the TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) superfamily are important for cell growth and survival. CD27 is a member of the TNFR superfamily, which includes TNFR types I and II, NGFR... Show details
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CD28 (Antigen CD28) have been characterized as a co-receptor for the TCR-CD3 (T-Cell Receptor-CD3 Antigen) complex and is responsible for providing the co-stimulatory signal required for T-cell... Show details
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CD40, a TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) family member, conveys signals regulating diverse cellular responses, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to growth suppression and cell... Show details
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Dynamic rearrangements of the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion are required for various cellular processes, such as shape changes, migration, and cytokinesis. These temporal and spatial... Show details
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The S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) CDC42 (Cell Division Control Protein-42), a member of the Rho/Rac subfamily of Ras-Like GTPases (GTP-Binding Proteins) and Ras superfamily of low... Show details
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Actin cortical patches are one of the major cytoskeletal structures in yeast and are essential for normal Endocytosis, Cell Growth and Morphology. Actin cortical patches are associated with... Show details
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Cell Polarity is an essential characteristic of virtually every cell type. The budding yeast S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been critical for elucidation of proteins and mechanisms... Show details
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CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinases) are a group of serine/threonine protein kinases activated by binding to a regulatory subunit cyclin. These kinases are key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle... Show details
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BTG2 (BTG Family Member-2) is endowed with antiproliferative activity. The expression of BTG2 in cycling cells induces accumulation of hypophosphorylated, growth-inhibitory forms of Rb... Show details
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The stable propagation of genetic information requires that the entire genome of an organism be faithfully replicated only once in each cell cycle. In eukaryotes, this replication is initiated at... Show details
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Cellular integrity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the proper composition of the cell wall and is controlled by the PKC1 (Protein Kinase-C-1)-mediated signal transduction through... Show details
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Apoptosis is a naturally occurring process by which a cell is directed to Programmed Cell Death. Apoptosis is based on a genetic program that is an indispensable part of the development and... Show details
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Erectile Dysfunction commonly known as ED or Impotence, affects a large segment of the male population that results in impaired relaxation of the smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum and... Show details
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HBV (Hepatitis-B Virus) belongs to a family of closely related DNA viruses called the Hepadnaviruses. Included in this family are the WHV (Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus), the DHBV (Duck Hepatitis-B... Show details
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HTLV1 (Human T-Lymphotropic Virus-1) is the etiological agent for ATL (Adult T-Cell Leukemia) as well as for TSP (Tropical Spastic Paraparesis) and HAM (HTLV1 Associate Myelopathy). Involvement of... Show details
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The SM (Sphingomyelin) pathway is an evolutionarily conserved stress response system linking diverse environmental stresses (Ultraviolet, Heat Shock, Oxidative Stress, and Ionizing Radiation) to... Show details
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Cells activate checkpoint pathways in response to DNA damage or a block to replication, that prevent cell cycle progression by inhibiting the basic cell cycle machinery until the problem is... Show details
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The maintenance of genomic integrity is important for the survival of eukaryotic cells. Checkpoint mechanisms prevent cell cycle transitions until previous events have been completed or damaged... Show details
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Chemokines, or chemotactic cytokines, are a large family of small (6-14 kDa), structurally related proteins that mediate a wide range of biological activities. As a part of normal immune system... Show details
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In the presence of DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication, eukaryotic cells activate cell cycle checkpoints that temporarily halt the cell cycle to permit DNA repair or completion of DNA... Show details
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Cholera is one of the most severe diarrheal diseases that affect humans and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality especially among children in developing countries. It is... Show details
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The liver is the major organ responsible for the conversion of excess dietary carbohydrate into triglycerides. Ins (Insulin) and Glucagon (a pancreatic hormone) play critical roles in homeostatsis... Show details
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The condensation of DNA into an ordered chromatin structure allows the cell to solve the topological problems associated with storing huge molecules of chromosomal DNA within the nucleus. DNA is... Show details
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Photoreceptors and circadian clocks are universal mechanisms for sensing and responding to the light environment. In addition to regulating daily activities, photoreceptors and circadian clocks... Show details
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Circadian rhythms are near-24-hour rhythms of biological processes that persist in the absence of environmental cues such as light and temperature. Such rhythms have been described in organisms... Show details
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Circadian clocks are molecular time-keeping mechanisms that reside in a diverse range of cell types in a variety of organisms. The primary role of these cell-autonomous clocks is to maintain their... Show details
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Circadian rhythms are endogenous biological programs that time metabolic and/or behavioral events to occur at optimal phases of the daily cycle. Although these rhythms parallel environmental... Show details
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Circadian rhythms are endogenous biological programs that allow organisms to anticipate changes in their environment, such as the onset of dawn and dusk, thereby coordinating temporal phases of... Show details
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Simple eukaryotes such as yeasts and molds encode multiple PAKs (p21-Activated Kinases) that, like their orthologs in other systems, act downstream of Rho-family GTPases to regulate cytoskeletal... Show details
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Complement is a system of circulating enzymes that is part of the bodys response to illness or injury. The complement system plays an essential role in host defence against infectious agents and... Show details
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During the course of transcription, the initial RNA product synthesized by RNA-PolII (RNA Polymerase-II), called a Primary transcript undergoes several processing steps including Capping, Splicing... Show details
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Signal transduction is a common process used by an extensive array of biological ligands to modulate various host cell processes such as growth, differentiation, and proliferation. Cells respond... Show details
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CNTF (Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor) is a protein expressed in glial cells, which stimulates gene expression and cell survival and differentiation in a variety of neuronal cell populations and... Show details
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Colorectal cancer represents a relatively well-characterized tumorigenesis paradigm and colorectal carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Colorectal cancer results from... Show details
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The C (Complement) system consists of about twenty plasma proteins that function either as enzymes or as binding proteins. In addition to these plasma proteins, the complement system includes... Show details
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The process of consolidating a new memory and the dynamic complexity of information processing within neuronal networks is greatly increased by activity-dependent changes in gene expression... Show details
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CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone) and related peptides play a major role in coordinating the behavioral, endocrine, cardiovascular, autonomic and immune mechanisms that allow mammals to adapt... Show details
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The ESRs (Estrogen Receptors) are ligand-dependent transcription factors and are important Nuclear Hormone Receptors that act as regulators of cell growth, differentiation and malignant... Show details
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The CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes), also known as killer T-Cells are produced during cell-mediated immunity designed to remove body cells displaying "foreign" epitope, such as virus-infected... Show details
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The T-Cell compartment of adaptive immunity provides vertebrates with the potential to survey for and respond specifically to an incredible diversity of antigens (Ref.1). In the periphery, one... Show details
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CXCR4 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Receptor-4) (CD184) is a GPCR (G Protein-Coupled Receptor) with selectivity for a single CXC-motif chemokine, called SDF1 (Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1). The... Show details
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Progress in the eukaryotic cell cycle is driven by oscillations in the activities of CDKs (Cyclin-Dependent Kinases). CDK activity is controlled by periodic synthesis and degradation of positive... Show details
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The immune system recognizes the presence of pathogens by several proteins that bind to molecules secreted by the pathogen or carried on their surface. The cells responsible for these immune... Show details
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CKs (Cytokinins), a group of Phytohormones, are involved in the regulation of various processes in plant growth and development such as Cell Division Control, Shoot Meristem Initiation, Leaf and... Show details
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The Chlamydiae are Gram-negative bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells and are the etiologic agents of several human diseases. These parasites depend on their host... Show details
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Colorectal tumors arise as a result of the mutational activation of oncogenes coupled with the mutational inactivation of tumor suppressor genes without a major role for gene amplification or... Show details
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The cell membranes do not simply serve as barriers to separate the inside of the cell from the outside or to delineate different intracellular compartments. These membranes also serve as a... Show details
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The 14-3-3 proteins comprise a large family of highly conserved, small, acidic polypeptides of 28-33 kDa that are found in all eukaryotic species and play important roles in a wide range of... Show details
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Transcriptional repression is an essential mechanism in the precise control of gene expression. Transcriptional repressor proteins associate with their target genes either directly through a... Show details
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Cells are constantly under threat from the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of DNA damaging agents. Environmental DNA-damaging agents include UV light and ionizing radiation, as well as a variety... Show details
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One of the ultimate frontiers for mankind is the elucidation of the function of the mind. Dopaminergic and Glutamergic are two primary neurotransmitter systems in the brain, which are crucially... Show details
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The TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) superfamily comprises a growing family of type I membrane bound glycoproteins, which interact with the TNF family of soluble mediators and type II... Show details
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The experience of pain in response to noxious stimuli serves a crucial biological purpose: it alerts a living organism to environmental dangers, inducing behavioral responses that protect the... Show details
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The PI3K (Phosphatidylinositde-3 Kinase) family of enzymes is recruited upon growth factor receptor activation and produces 3 phosphoinositide lipids. The lipid products of PI3K act as second... Show details
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DRPLA (Dentatorubropallidoluysian Atrophy) is a Rare Neurodegenerative disorder that usually is inherited in an Autosomal Dominant pattern. The Clinical symptoms are variable depending on the age... Show details
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DSBs (DNA Double-Strand Breaks) are extremely genotoxic DNA lesions that pose problems for DNA Transcription, Replication and Segregation. Improper processing of DSBs gives rise to chromosomal... Show details
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The DNA within our cells is continually being exposed to DNA-damaging agents. These include UV (Ultraviolet Light), natural and man-made mutagenic chemicals, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species)... Show details
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EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) is a small 53 amino acid residue protein that is involved in normal cell growth, oncogenesis, and wound healing. This protein shows both strong sequential and... Show details
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Protein synthesis in eukaryotic organisms is a complex process that requires cooperation among a large number of polypeptides including ribosomal proteins, modification of enzymes, and... Show details
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Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells with broad developmental potential. They are able to generate various specialized cell types and, in addition, have the capacity to... Show details
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ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) are a population of Pluripotent, Self-renewing cells which can proliferate indefinitely and contribute to the formation of basically all cell... Show details
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All cells need to interpret their environment. Efficient processing of signals from the extracellular milieu is achieved through dynamic signal-transduction systems. The components of this system... Show details
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Cardiac hypertrophy describes an abnormal condition where the heart becomes enlarged. Several factors, such as increased mechanical loading and neuro-hormonal chemicals can induce hypertrophy. ET1... Show details
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NO (Nitric Oxide) is a short-lived free radical gas involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes. It is produced along with L-Citrulline by the oxidation of L-Arginine and... Show details
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Pathogenic microbes subvert normal host-cell processes to create a specialized niche, which enhances their survival. A common and recurring target of pathogens is the host cells cytoskeleton,... Show details
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The Eph family forms the largest group of RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) comprising 14 members in mammals that play critical roles in diverse biological processes during development as well as... Show details
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In numerous processes that are vital for the development and maintenance of organism function, cells must communicate crucial information to respond appropriately to the changing environment. As... Show details
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Neuronal growth cones in the developing nervous system are guided to their targets by attractive and repulsive guidance molecules, which include members of the netrin, semaphorin, ephrin, and Slit... Show details
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Adhesion between neighboring epithelial cells is a crucial and tightly controlled process. The integrity of cell-cell contacts is essential for the regulation of electrolyte absorption and for the... Show details
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Epithelia in multicellular organisms constitute the frontier that separates the individual from the environment. Epithelia are sites of exchange as well as barriers, for the transit of ions and... Show details
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Phagocytosis, the process by which cells engulf foreign particles, occurs in eukaryotes ranging from unicellular organisms, which use it for nutrition, to mammals, where it plays a key role in... Show details
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The ErbB (Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog) or EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) family of transmembrane PTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) plays an important role during the growth and... Show details
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The ErbB (Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog) family of transmembrane RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many cancers (Ref.1). This family... Show details
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ErbB4 (Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog-4) is a 180-kDa transmembrane RTK (Receptor Tyrosine Kinase) that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. The ErbB4 gene has been... Show details
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The MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) pathway is one of the primordial signaling systems that nature has used in several permutations to accomplish an amazing variety of tasks. It exists in... Show details
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ERK5 (also known as the BMK1(Big MAP Kinase-1)) is an atypical MAPK that can be activated in vivo by a variety of stimuli, including Serum, Growth factors including EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor),... Show details
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Human Malaria is caused by infection with four species of the intracellular parasitic protozoan genus Plasmodium that are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Of these four species, Plasmodium... Show details
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Erythropoiesis is a major pathway for Erythrocyte production, by which pluripotent Hematopoietic Stem Cells give rise to mature end stage cells via a series of... Show details
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Estrogens play important roles in growth, development, reproduction, and maintenance of a diverse range of mammalian tissues. The physiological effects of estrogens are mediated by the... Show details
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Estrogens are a class of steroid hormones that play a central role in reproduction, and are regarded as the powerful female hormones that make a girl develop into a woman capable of reproduction.... Show details
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Ethylene (C2H4) is a Plant hormone involved in a large number of developmental processes including Ripening of Fruit, Abscission, Senescence and Responses to Wounding. Ethylene Biosynthesis is... Show details
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The Hydrocarbon Ethylene (C2H4) is a Gaseous Plant hormone, which is involved in a multitude of Physiological and Developmental processes. Responses to Ethylene include Fruit Ripening, Leaf... Show details
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Malaria (from the Italian malaria, meaning bad air) is an Acute infection caused by four species of the Protozoa genus Plasmodium: P.falciprium, P.vivax, P.malariae and P.ovale. Plasmodium... Show details
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Thrombin/TFIIa (Activated Factor-II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the Coagulation cascade, the homeostatic process of greatest interest. It is a multifunctional serine... Show details
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Heart is the first organ to form and function in the Embryo, and all subsequent events in the life of the organism depend on the Hearts ability to match its output with... Show details
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Engagement of integrin receptors with extracellular ligands gives rise to the formation of complex multi-protein structures that link the ECM (Extracellular Matrix) to the cytoplasmic Actin ... Show details
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A number of inherited (constitutional/genetic) disorders are characterized by BM (Bone Marrow) failure usually in association with one or more somatic abnormality. The BM failure may involve all... Show details
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Fas (also called Apo1 or CD95) is a death domain-containing member of the TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) superfamily. It has a central role in the physiological regulation of Programmed... Show details
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The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays a fundamental role in our immune defense system. Interaction of these complexes with many cells of the immune system results in a variety of... Show details
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The ability of the immune system to respond appropriately to foreign antigen is dependent on a delicate balance of activating and inhibitory signals. Although positive signaling is essential for... Show details
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The Fc-GammaR (Fc-Gamma Receptors/Immunoglobulin-Gamma Fc Receptors) expressed on hematopoietic cells play a key role in immune defenses by linking humoral and cellular immunity.Fc-GammaR ... Show details
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Phagocytosis is of fundamental importance for a wide diversity of organisms. Phagocytic cells in complex metazoans represent an essential branch of the immune system. Evolution has armed these... Show details
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Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes, such as ovulation, embryogenesis, wound repair, inflammation, malignant tumor... Show details
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Vegetative yeast cells respond to environmental cues by activating signal transduction pathways that enable them to mount the appropriate physiological response. Each of the cues is dealt with by... Show details
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Unicellular S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) undergoes developmental switches between two differentiation states in response to environmental cues. Under stress conditions, diploid S.... Show details
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E. coli (Escherichia coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals. They are necessary for the proper... Show details
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In an ever-changing environment, it is essential that organisms are able to sense these changes and to respond appropriately. Possible responses include alterations in gene expression and/or... Show details
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FLT3 (Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase-3), also known as FLK2 (Fetal Liver Kinase-2) and STK1 (human Stem Cell Kinase-1) was originally isolated as a hematopoietic progenitor cell-specific kinase, and... Show details
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Neutrophils play an important role in the host defense by invading microbial pathogens. Upon infection neutrophils become activated through interaction with chemo attractants and cytokines. These... Show details
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In multicellular organisms, epithelia form highly organized structures. Epithelial apical-basolateral polarity enables the tissues to perform functions such as vectorial transport of fluid or... Show details
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The heterotrimeric G-Proteins (Guanine nucleotide-binding Proteins) are signal transducers that communicate signals from many hormones, neurotransmitters, chemokines, and autocrine and paracrine... Show details
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GPCR (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors) constitute a large and diverse family of proteins whose primary function is to transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular signals. They are among the... Show details
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G-Proteins are heterotrimers, consisting of Alpha, Beta and Gamma subunits, and are involved in signaling to distinct effectors. Heterotrimeric G-Proteins convey extracellular signals that... Show details
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G-proteins (Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Proteins) are heterotrimeric proteins that mediate signal transduction between many membrane-bound receptors and intracellular effectors. Traditionally,... Show details
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The Tubby protein is the founding member of a multigene protein family that plays an important role in maintenance and function of neuronal cells during development and post-differentiation.... Show details
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Cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage is an important mechanism for maintaining genomic integrity. This cell cycle arrest provides time for DNA repair to prevent replication or segregation... Show details
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The G12 subfamily of heterotrimeric G-Proteins , comprised of the Alpha-subunits G-Alpha12 and G-Alpha13, has been implicated as a signaling component in cellular processes ranging from... Show details
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The cellular responses to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation include activation of cell cycle checkpoints that delay progression of cells through the cell cycle. Ionizing radiation-induced... Show details
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Genotoxic stress is an important and ubiquitous type of stress that cells are inevitably exposed to over the life span of an organism. Many potentially damaging agents both from the environment... Show details
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Neurotrophic factors are a broad set of peptide growth factors that tightly regulate many critical aspects of the ontogeny of neurons, such as the number of neurons in a given population, neurite... Show details
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Sertoli-Germ (Spermatid)-cell interactions affect spermatogenesis at the molecular, cellular and biochemical levels. Germ cell movement within the epithelium is vital because germ cells, if... Show details
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GHRH (Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone) is a hypothalamic hormone that is essential for normal expansion of the somatotrope lineage during pituitary development. GHRH is produced by GHRH cells in... Show details
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GAs (Gibberellins) are members of a large family of Diterpenoid compounds, which are essential for a number of processes, including Gene Expression in Cereal Aleurones, Seed Germination,... Show details
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GAs (Gibberellic Acids or Gibberellins) form a large family of diterpenoid compounds, some of which are bioactive growth regulators, which control diverse developmental processes such as seed... Show details
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GITR (Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR Family-Related) also termed AITR (Activation-Inducible TNFR Family Receptor) is a member of the TNFRSF18 (TNF Receptor Superfamily 18). It is a 228-amino acids... Show details
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Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is biologically aggressive neoplasms which have an elevated, often aberrant, prolifetraive capacity with a diffuse pattern of brain invasion. It is the most malignant... Show details
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Gliomas are the most common intracranial malignant tumors in humans, and high-grade Gliomas in particular pose a unique challenge due to their propensity for proliferation and tissue invasion... Show details
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Our bones get more brittle with increasing age, and to add insult to injury, the most effective therapy for another problem that is associated with getting older, rheumatoid arthritis, often adds... Show details
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Normal mammalian sexual maturation and reproductive functions require the integration and precise coordination of hormones at the hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal levels. The hypothalamic GnRH... Show details
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GPCRs (Guanine Nucleotide Binding-Protein Coupled Receptors) comprise large and diverse gene families in fungi, plants, and the animal kingdom. Also termed serpentine receptors, GPCRs are... Show details
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The migration of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) from the vascular system to sites of pathogenic exposure is a key event in the process of inflammation. The inflammatory reaction enables... Show details
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Lymphocytes play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses. A key function of CL (Cytotoxic Lymphocytes) is to detect and eliminate potentially harmful cells by inducing them to undergo... Show details
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CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes) and NK (Natural Killer) cells are the key immune effectors that eradicate infected cells or tumors. To destroy these targets, CTLs and NK cells mostly use the... Show details
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CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes) and NK (Natural Killer) cells are the key immune effectors that eradicate infected cells or tumors. To destroy these targets, CTLs and NK cells mostly use the... Show details
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Most aging individuals die from atherosclerosis, cancer, or dementia; but in the oldest old, loss of muscle strength resulting in frailty is the limiting factor for an individuals chances of... Show details
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GSK3 (Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3) is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase found in all eukaryotes. Identified originally as a regulator of glycogen... Show details
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As an axon grows, the growth cone at its advancing edge encounters specific ‘choice points’ at which guidance cues steer specific axons towards their appropriate destinations. Such cues may... Show details
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Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative bacterium that causes chronic inflammation in essentially all hosts, a process that increases the risk of developing peptic ulceration, distal gastric... Show details
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The hair follicle is a three-dimensional tube, composed mainly of epithelial cells that protrude down through the epidermis and dermis of the skin, enveloping at its base the mesenchyme-derived... Show details
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HBV (Hepatitis-B Virus) belongs to a family of closely related DNA viruses called the Hepadnaviruses. Included in this family are the WHV (Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus), the DHBV (Duck Hepatitis-B... Show details
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Hepatitis-C Virus (HCV) belongs to the Flaviviridae family and is the leading cause of chronic liver disease globally. It is estimated to infect about 170 million people around the world (WHO,... Show details
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The Hh (Hedgehog) proteins are evolutionarily conserved signaling molecules that control the normal growth and patterning of diverse animals including Drosophila and humans. In flies, Hh is... Show details
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Controlled cell proliferation is a predominant theme in normal embryonic and post-embryonic development, and, in many instances, cell-type specification and cell proliferation are intimately... Show details
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ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are a large superfamily of integral membrane proteins involved in the cellular export or import of a wide variety of different substances, including ions,... Show details
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HGF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor)/SF (Scatter Factor) is a mesenchymal- or stromal-derived multipotent heparan sulfate-binding and dermatan sulfate-binding pleiotropic polypeptide that mediates... Show details
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The cellular response to O2 (oxygen) is a central process in animal cells and figures prominently in the pathophysiology of several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke.... Show details
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The internal osmolarity of a growing yeast cell is maintained higher than the external osmolarity. The resulting osmotic gradient across the plasma membrane brings in water for cell expansion and... Show details
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The ability of a cell to respond specifically to various external and internal signals plays an essential role in regulating gene expression, differentiation, and cell death. Most often, the... Show details
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Cardiac myocyte proliferation and their differentiation early in development are dependent on the coordinate expression and action of SRF (Serum Response Factor), GATA4 (GATA Binding Protein-4)... Show details
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Herpesviridae is a large family of viruses including several members that are pathogenic to humans, causing a variety of disorders ranging from cold sores and chicken pox to less frequent... Show details
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HSV1 (Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1) is a member of the Herpes group of viruses, the Herpesviridiae, which includes the important human pathogens HSV2, CMV (Cytomegalovirus), Varicella zoster Virus,... Show details
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The retroviral life cycle begins in the nucleus of an infected cell. At this stage of the life cycle the retroviral genome is a DNA element integrated into and covalently attached to the DNA of... Show details
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An Embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination. In... Show details
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ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) are Pluripotent cells capable of differentiating into any cell type of the body. Only three species of Mammals have yielded long-term cultures... Show details
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Huntington disease is an Autosomally Dominant degenerative disorder resulting from expansion (>37 units) of a polyglutamine repeats in Huntingtin, a 350-kDa protein of unknown function. The... Show details
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Huntingtons disease, also known as Huntington Chorea, is a dominantly inherited Neurodegenerative disorder featuring progressively worsening Chorea, Psychiatric disturbances and Cognitive... Show details
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Auxin is a classic Phytohormone involved in a myriad of Developmental and Environmental Processes: Embryo Patterning, Cell Division and Elongation, Vascular Differentiation, Lateral Root... Show details
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During immune response, T-cells are optimally activated in secondary lymphoid tissues in order to properly migrate into areas of inflamed tissue. Upon antigen recognition via the... Show details
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Programmed cell death, a form of altruistic suicide is a genetically controlled means of cellular self-destruction that leads to dismantling and packaging of cell material for removal by... Show details
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IL-1 (Interleukin-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine that stimulates a broad spectrum of immune and inflammatory responses. IL-1 is produced by activated macrophages, endothelia cells, B-Cells, and... Show details
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IL-10 (Interleukin-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine with important immunoregulatory functions whose actions influence activities of many of the cell-types in the immune system. It is a cytokine with... Show details
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IL-2 (Interleukin-2) is a biological response modifier (cytokine), which stimulates the growth, proliferation and subsequent differentiation of disease-fighting blood cells, like T-Cells, B-Cells,... Show details
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IL-2 (Interleukin-2) is a T-Cell-derived cytokine important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of T-Cells, B-Cells, natural killer cells, glioma cells, and cells of the monocyte... Show details
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IL-22/IL-TIF (Interleukin-22/IL-10-related T-Cell-derived Inducible Factor) is a novel cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family. IL-22 induces the production of acute-phase reactants in liver and... Show details
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IL-3 (Interleukin-3) is a cytokine that regulates haemopoiesis, the formation of blood cells in the body. IL-3, also called multi-CSF (multi-lineage colony stimulating factor), is produced by T... Show details
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IL-4 (Interleukin-4) is a T-Cell derived multifunctional cytokine with a molecular weight of approximately 15 to 19 kD that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses. It plays an... Show details
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IL-6 (Interleukin-6) is a cytokine that provokes a broad range of cellular and physiological responses, including the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis by regulating... Show details
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IL-9 (Interleukin-9) is a TH2-type cytokine first described in the mouse as a potent T-Cell and mast cell growth factor. IL-9 has been reported to be a T-Cell derived cytokine with various effects... Show details
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The ECM (Extracellular Matrix) provides the structural framework for the formation of tissues and organs. The ECM binds to substrate adhesion molecules on the surface of cells and influences... Show details
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Influenza, commonly called "the flu", is an infection of the respiratory tract caused by the Influenza virus. Compared with most other viral respiratory infections, such as the common cold,... Show details
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Cancer is a multistep process that includes deregulation of cell cycle, transformation, invasion of stroma, angiogenesis and metastasis. Angiogenesis is an essential component for tumor... Show details
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MPs (Metalloproteinases) play key roles in the responses of cells to their microenvironment. By effecting proteolytic degradation or activation of cell surface and ECM (Extracellular Matrix)... Show details
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CDKN2A (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor-2A) belongs to the CDKN family which show specificity for G1 phase CDKs (Cyclin-Dependent Kinases) and such binding results in block exit from G1 into S... Show details
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CDKN2A (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor-2A), which is also referred to as p16(INK4A) encodes ARFs (Alternative Reading Frames), or transcript variants. In mice the p16(INK4A) encodes a... Show details
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Microorganisms have developed several mechanisms to survive in their hosts environments. These include competition with their hosts for metal acquisition and resistance to host defenses such as NO... Show details
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Insulin is the major hormone controlling critical energy functions such as glucose and lipid metabolism. Insulin elicits a diverse array of biological responses by binding to its specific receptor... Show details
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Adhesive interactions between cells and ECM (Extracellular Matrix) proteins play a vital role in biological processes, including cell survival, growth, differentiation, migration, inflammatory... Show details
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To thwart viral infection, our cells have developed a formidable and integrated defense network that comprise of innate and adaptive immune responses. In an attempt to prevent viral replication,... Show details
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An essential step in the life cycle of many important pathogenic bacteria is their ability to invade cells that are normally nonphagocytic. Gaining access to an intracellular niche provides... Show details
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Despite tremendous diversities in their expression, cellular activities in virtually all cell types are regulated by common intracellular signaling systems, and calcium is one important ubiquitous... Show details
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common pancreatic neoplasm and as its name suggests it arises from ductal epithelial cells of the pancreas. Other subtypes of pancreatic neoplasms... Show details
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The process by which the body prevents blood loss is referred to as coagulation. Thrombin/TFIIA (Activated Factor-II) is a multifunctional serine proteinase, which serves as an essential... Show details
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Plant growth and development are regulated by Internal Signals and by External Environmental Conditions. One important regulator that coordinates growth and development with responses to the... Show details
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IP3 (Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate), also known as a second messenger, is a molecule that functions to transfer a chemical signal received by the cell, such as from a hormone, neurotransmitters,... Show details
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Development of a proper immune system requires the selection of lymphocytes expressing a useful repertoire of antigen receptors that can respond to foreign or dangerous antigens but not to self.... Show details
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Signaling pathways mediating the transduction of information between cells are essential for development, cellular differentiation and homeostasis. Their dysregulation is also frequently... Show details
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JAs (Jasmonates) are potent Lipid Regulators of Defense gene expression and act in development where they are necessary for fertility. The Jasmonate Pathway performs critical roles in Plant... Show details
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JAs (Jasmonates) are Fatty Acid–derived Signaling molecules involved in the regulation of many Physiological and Developmental Processes in Plants, including Root Growth, Tuberization, Fruit... Show details
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MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) are Serine-threonine protein Kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate signal transduction from the cell... Show details
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Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, is the major cause of morbidity and mortality from CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) in much of the world’s population. The disease... Show details
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Cholesterol is an important component of cell membrane, and a precursor of Steroid hormones, vitamin D3, and Biliairy Acids. Cell Cholesterol homeostasis is under the control of endogenous... Show details
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Complement is a complex system containing more than 30 various glycoproteins present in serum in the form of components, factors, or other regulators and/or on the surface of different cells in... Show details
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Malaria is the worlds largest parasitic disease, killing more people than any other communicable disease except Tuberculosis. Malaria is a major public health problem in more than 100 countries,... Show details
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The CD1 (Thymocyte Antigen CD1) antigen presentation system presents lipid and glycolipid antigens to effector T-Cells, which have diverse roles in Antimicrobial responses, Antitumor immunity and... Show details
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Endotoxin LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that potently promotes the activation of macrophages and microglia cells, which are important... Show details
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Much of the efficiency of the immune system is attributed to the high degree of spatial and temporal organization in the secondary lymphoid organs. Signaling through the LT-BetaR (Lymphotoxin-Beta... Show details
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In humans, Lysine is an essential amino acid, and there is no Lysine biosynthetic machinery. However, humans do degrade Lysine. Lysine is incorporated to Collagen, one of the most important... Show details
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Cell differentiation begins only when the cell proliferation mechanism is seized, and the macrophage differentiation system is a good example,as the macrophages start to differentiate only when... Show details
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The Malate (L-Malic Acid)-Asp (Aspartate or L-Aspartate or Aspartic Acid) Shuttle of mammalian systems is more complex but more energy efficient. Mitochondrial NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine... Show details
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Protein kinases are ubiquitous enzymes that are able to modulate the activities of other proteins by adding phosphate groups to their tyrosine, serine, or threonine amino acids (phosphorylation).... Show details
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The MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) pathways are highly conserved signaling cascades that convert extracellular signals into various outputs. Each pathway is composed of three classes of... Show details
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MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signal transduction pathways are evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotic cells and transduce signals in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. Each... Show details
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In both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, a major adaptive response to various Stress conditions is to change the repertoire of Gene expression. Prokaryotic cells commonly employ the two-component... Show details
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MAPK (Mitogen-activated protein kinases) are serine-threonine protein kinases that are activated by diverse stimuli ranging from cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, hormones, cellular... Show details
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Intracellular signaling cascades are the main routes of communication between the Plasma membrane and regulatory targets in various intracellular compartments. Sequential activation of Kinases is... Show details
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The MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) cascades play a pivotal role in many aspects of cellular functions, and are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. In Saccharomyces.... Show details
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Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming gram positive, aerobic bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle,... Show details
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Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one of the most potent toxins that inhibit neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. The toxin is a microbial product synthesized by an anaerobic,... Show details
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The translocation of proteins from one compartment to another is an essential feature of cellular life. The proper functioning of extracytoplasmic proteins requires their export to, and productive... Show details
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Human Skin is made up of two main layers, the Epidermis, which is described as a Stratified Squamous Epithelium mainly consisting of Keratinocytes, and the Dermis, an underlying layer of... Show details
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In mammals, the circadian system is comprised of three major components: the lateral eyes, the hypothalamic SCN (Suprachiasmatic Nucleus) and the pineal gland. The SCN harbours the endogenous... Show details
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In organisms as diverse as fruit flies and mammals, circadian rhythms are controlled by a transcriptional feedback system whose activity fluctuates as a function of the light-dark cycle. In... Show details
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The cytokine MIF(Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor) is an integral mediator of the innate immune system. Monocytes and macrophages constitutively express large amounts of MIF, which is... Show details
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Glucocorticoids are among the most potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. They inhibit synthesis of almost all known Cytokines, enzymes involved in the inflammatory process and of... Show details
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The innate immune response to bacteria is essential for survival but the systemic release of inflammatory mediators results in the life-threatening Septic-shock reaction. Macrophages are essential... Show details
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The major DNA Repair mechanisms take advantage of the facts that DNA is double-stranded and the same information is present in both strands. Consequently, in cases where damage is present in just... Show details
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The integrity of genetic information depends on the fidelity of DNA replication and on the efficiency of several different DNA repair processes. Among many types of DNA repair, the general MMR... Show details
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Apoptosis is a naturally occurring process by which a cell is directed to Programmed Cell Death. Apoptosis is based on a genetic program that is an indispensable part of the development and... Show details
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Carnitine (L-Carnitine or 3-hydroxy-4-(trimethylammonio) butanoate) and its Acyl-Esters (Acyl-Carnitines or ROC-Carnitine) are essential compounds for the metabolism of fatty acids (or RCOOH... Show details
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Eukaryotic cells are characterized by extensive subcellular compartmentation whose structural basis is the existence of a number of highly specialized membrane-bound organelles. Each of these... Show details
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Cell division is characterized by orchestrated events of chromosome segregation, distribution of cellular organelles, and the eventual partitioning and separation of the two daughter cells.... Show details
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Estrogen contributes to the development of three of the top five cancers of women--those of the breast, uterus, and ovaries--which together account for an estimated 240,000 new cancer cases a year... Show details
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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels that requires long-term medical attention both to limit the development of its devastating complications and to... Show details
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Cancer cell genotypes are a manifestation of six essential alterations in cell physiology that collectively dictate malignant growth; self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to... Show details
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Embryonic development is the generation of a multicellular organism from a single cell. During this process, tissues and organs are differentiated and positioned at different parts of the... Show details
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One of the basic aspects of the immune response is that the host must be able to clear infections efficiently, while minimizing damage caused to host tissues and regulation of macrophage... Show details
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mTOR (Mammalian Target of Rapamycin) is a 289-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the PIKK (Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-related Kinase) family. The protein consists of a... Show details
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Epithelial continuity depends on a family of small, yet abundant, secreted proteins the TFFs (Trefoil Factors). TFFs are considered as Rapid Response agents to mucosal injury; with up-regulation... Show details
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The macrophage differentiation system in mouse establishes the fact that,the macrophagesstop proliferate during the process of cell differentiation. Induction of METS (Mitogenic Ets... Show details
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Immune and inflammatory responses are rightly regulated to maintain a homoeostatic balance between an effective immune response and tissue damage to the host. Nitric Oxide is the principal... Show details
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Muscular dystrophy is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement. This group... Show details
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ESCs (Embryonic stem cells) are Pluripotent cells derived from the ICM (Inner Cell Mass) of Blastocyst-stage embryos. These cells have two distinctive properties: an unlimited capacity for... Show details
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Directional information is provided to migrating neurons and growth cones in the form of extracellular cues, whose presence, absence, or concentration differential is transduced into effects on... Show details
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Living organisms need to sense noxious stimuli in their immediate environment to avoid potentially hazardous situations and thus survive. To this end, multicellular creatures have evolved a... Show details
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Survival of an organism is dependent on its ability to rapidly and effectively respond to adverse changes in its environment. Eukaryotic cells possess a number of distinct signal transduction... Show details
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The EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus) is a member of the human herpes virus family, which infects greater than 90% of the world’s population. EBV is linked to the development of several malignancies,... Show details
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As viruses evolve under the highly selective pressures of the immune system, they acquire the capacity to target critical steps in the host cell life, hijacking vital cellular functions to promote... Show details
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NF-KappaB (Nuclear Factor-KappaB) is a heterodimeric protein composed of different combinations of members of the Rel family of transcription factors. The Rel/ NF-KappaB family of transcription... Show details
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NF-KappaB (Nuclear factor-KappaB)/Rel proteins are dimeric, sequence-specific transcription factors involved in the activation of an exceptionally large number of genes in response to... Show details
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Cardiac failure, one of the largest health care burdens in the United States and other developed countries is often associated with prolonged and maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, defined as a... Show details
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Antigenic stimulation of lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system initiates a complex series of intracellular signal transduction pathways that lead to the expression of a panel of... Show details
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The optimum functioning of the immune system is crucial for human survival. The invading pathogens are encountered by the cells of the immune system, which include T-Cells, B-Cells, macrophages,... Show details
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One of the most fundamental issues in current biology is how to maintain the critical balance between cell survival and death, both during development and in adulthood. Unrestrained cell division... Show details
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Axon regeneration is arrested in the injured CNS (Central Nervous System) by axon growth-inhibitory ligands expressed in oligodendrocytes/myelin and reactive astrocytes in the lesion and by... Show details
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Cell death has been divided into two main types: PCD (Programmed Cell Death), in which the cell plays an active role, and Necrotic (passive) cell death. PCD is a form of cell death in which the... Show details
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NO (Nitric Oxide) is formed endogenously by a family of enzymes known as NOS (NO Synthases). The distribution of different isoforms of NOS is largely related to their respective functions. Three... Show details
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NO (Nitric Oxide) is formed endogenously by a family of enzymes known as NOS (NO Synthases). The distribution of different isoforms of NOS is largely related to their respective functions. Three... Show details
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The Notch signaling pathway is a fundamental signaling system used by neighboring cells to communicate with each other in order to assume their proper developmental role. Notch proteins are cell... Show details
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The Gram-negative bacterium NTHi (Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae) is an important human respiratory pathogen in children and adults. In children, it causes OM (Otitis Media), the most common... Show details
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Retinoids (an analogue of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol)) and Retinoic Acid (a metabolite of Vitamin-A), regulate expression of target genes through binding and activation of the nuclear receptors... Show details
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The inability to repair DNA damage properly leads to various disorders and enhanced rates of tumor development. Mammals respond to chromosomal insults by activating a complex damage response... Show details
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During development in the thymus, immature thymocytes which express self-reactive TCR (T-Cell Receptor) are eliminated from the developing T-cell repertoire. This process of clonal deletion, or... Show details
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PCD (Programmed Cell Death), often referred to as Apoptosis, is a genetically regulated, self-destructive cellular process found in metazoans. It eliminates individual cells when they are no... Show details
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Stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of producing virtually all cell types in our body. They are characterized by the ability to Self-renew and maintain Pluripotency. For proper... Show details
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The olfactory system is a very efficient biological setup capable of odor information processing with neural signals. The mammalian olfactory system can recognize and discriminate a large number... Show details
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Our chemical senses, taste and smell, are our oldest senses. Long before organisms could hear or see, they needed to find nutrients, had to avoid toxic substances, and they were attracted by... Show details
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Proinflammatory cytokines are the principal intercellular mediators of the tissue reaction to trauma and infection. Members of IL-6 (Interleukin-6) hematopoietic cytokine family, that include... Show details
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OX40 is a T-Cell activator that is believed to promote the survival (and perhaps prolong the immune response) of CD4+ T cells at sites of inflammation. The co-stimulatory molecule OX40L (OX40... Show details
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Angiogenesis plays an important role in pathological events such as tumor growth, wound healing, psoriasis, and the ischemic retinopathies that occur in diabetes and sickle cell disease. The main... Show details
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Cellular responses to many external stimuli involve the activation of several types of MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signaling pathways. MAPKs are a family of Serine/threonine kinases... Show details
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Apoptosis is a genetically controlled mechanism of cell death that is essential for the elimination of unwanted cells during normal development and for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. One... Show details
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p53 is a tumour suppressor protein that regulates the expression of a wide variety of genes involved in Apoptosis, Growth arrest, Inhibition of cell cycle progression, Differentiation and... Show details
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p70S6K is a protein Ser-Thr kinase that phosphorylates the ribosomal S6 subunit, a component of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. It plays a role in protein synthesis and in cell growth... Show details
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PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide) is a member of the secretin glucagon-VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide) family of peptides and is widely distributed in the brain and... Show details
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PAKs (p21-Activated Protein Kinases) are a growing family of serine/threonine protein kinases, which are activated in response to extracellular signals and regulate cell shape and motility. PAKs... Show details
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Simple eukaryotes such as yeasts and molds encode multiple PAKs (p21-Activated Kinases) that, like their orthologs in other systems, act downstream of Rho-family GTPases. All PAKs contain an... Show details
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Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the most enigmatic and aggressive malignant diseases. Neoplasms of the pancreas encompass a wide spectrum of benign and malignant tumors. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma,... Show details
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Parkinsons disease is a Neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the appearance of intracellular inclusions, named Lewy... Show details
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ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by the selective degeneration of upper and lower motor... Show details
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Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are devastating as they are difficult to treat and may cause grave disability or death. CNS Gliomas pose particularly difficult problems because of their... Show details
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The gastrointestinal tract represents an important barrier between human hosts and microbial populations. One potential consequence of host-microbial interactions is the development of mucosal... Show details
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MS (Multiple Sclerosis) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the CNS (Central Nervous System). MS is classified according to its clinical course into several categories: benign, RR... Show details
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RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disease of unknown etiology affecting diarthrodial joints. Although the disease is characterized by synovitis of the joints, tendon... Show details
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Signals that derive from cell adhesion to the ECM (Extracellular Matrix) regulate important physiological events including cell motility and growth, and most often involve changes in the... Show details
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Directed cell migration is a critical feature of several physiological and pathological processes, including development, wound healing, atherosclerosis, immunity, angiogenesis, and metastasis.... Show details
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Blood vessel growth and stability are under the exquisite control of a network of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Disruption of the balance between these factors is a characteristic of tumor... Show details
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PGC1Alpha (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator-1-Alpha) is a tissue-specific transcriptional coactivator that enhances the activity of many nuclear receptors and... Show details
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Phagocytosis, a central component of the innate immune response, is the process whereby specialised cell types recognise and engulf foreign extracellular material. While lower organisms use... Show details
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Inositol lipid-specific PLC (Phospholipase-C) isozymes are key signaling proteins in the cellular action of many hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors, and other extracellular stimuli. PLC... Show details
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PI3Ks (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinases) regulate numerous biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, survival, proliferation, migration and metabolism. In the immune system, impaired... Show details
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PI3Ks (Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases) are an important type of lipid kinase that form a large evolutionarily conserved family of enzymes that specifically phosphorylate inositol phospholipids at the... Show details
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The PI3K (Phosphatidylinositde-3-Kinase) family of enzymes regulate diverse biological functions in every cell type by generating lipid second messengers that ultimately results in the mediation... Show details
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PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, development, memory, and metabolism. In its inactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two... Show details
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An effective immune response depends on the ability of specialized immunocytes to identify foreign molecules and respond by differentiation into mature effector cells. A cell-surface antigen... Show details
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PKR (Protein kinase-R) is a ubiquitously expressed serine-threonine kinase that has been implicated as a signal integrator in translational and transcriptional control pathways. PKR mediates... Show details
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Poliovirus is a member of the Picornaviridae family, which includes a number of significant pathogens of humans (e.g., Rhinoviruses, Coxsackieviruses, Echoviruses, Enteroviruses, and Hepatitis-A... Show details
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The amino-acid derived polyamines have long been associated with cell growth and cancer, and specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes regulate polyamine metabolism. Polyamines are organic... Show details
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Polyamines are vital for the growth and function of normal cells. The complexity of polyamine metabolism and the multitude of compensatory mechanisms that are invoked to maintain polyamine... Show details
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Poxviruses (of the family Poxviridae) are a family of the largest and most complex viruses that infect humans. They are large brick-shaped or ovoid complex dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) viruses... Show details
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Nuclear hormone receptors are transcription factors that bind DNA and regulate transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. PPARs (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors) are ligand-inducible... Show details
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Presenilins are polytopic transmembrane proteins, mutations in which are associated with the occurrence of Early-onset familial Alzheimers disease, a rare form of the disease that results from a... Show details
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Prion diseases or TSEs (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) form a biologically unique group of infectious fatal neurodegenerative disorders, which are caused by toxic gain of function in a... Show details
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Female fertility requires precise regulation of oocyte meiosis. Females from nearly every species of animal are born with their full complement of oocytes; however, these immature oocytes remain... Show details
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Prl (Prolactin), a multifunctional hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and to a lesser extent by numerous extrapituitary tissues, affects more physiological processes than all other... Show details
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Eukaryotic transcription is a highly regulated process, and acetylation plays a major role in this regulation. Acetylation can occur on histones, DNA-binding TF (Transcription Factors),... Show details
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Chloroplasts represent the most prominent members of a diverse group of essential organelles referred to collectively as the plastids. Plastids are a heterogeneous family of organelles found... Show details
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Chloroplasts are exceptionally complex organelles found ubiquitously in Plant and Algal cells. Chloroplasts contain at least six suborganellar compartments: Outer and Inner membranes,... Show details
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Tumorigenesis is the result of abnormal activation of growth programs in the cells. Cancer cells escape normal growth control mechanisms as a consequence of activating mutations, or increased... Show details
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To achieve strong adhesion to their neighbors and sustain stress and tension, epithelial cells develop many different specialized adhesive structures. Breakdown of these structures occurs during... Show details
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Ran is a member of the Ras family of small GTPases. The Ran subgroup is represented by its lone member, Ran, that is distinguished from RasGTPases by its lipid modification and atypical... Show details
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Bone remodeling and homeostasis is an essential function that regulates skeletal integrity throughout adult life in higher vertebrates and mammals. The structural and metabolic integrity of bone... Show details
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TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) and TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) family proteins play important roles in the control of cell death, proliferation, autoimmunity, the function of immune cells,... Show details
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Rap1 (Krev-1/smg p21), a small-molecular weight GTP-binding protein that belongs to the Ras-like superfamily of GTPases, is involved in signal transduction cascades. It is highly homologous to Ras... Show details
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AMLs (Acute Myeloid Leukemias) are characterized with chromosomal translocations resulting in the formation of fusion proteins. Understanding PML (Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Inducer) function... Show details
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In response to Retinoic Acid (a metabolite of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), which affects gene transcription), target genes are regulated by two families of nuclear receptors, the RARs (Retinoic... Show details
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Normal cell function, and its contribution to overall physiology, depends on the proper response of cells to extracellular stimulus. Ras, a legendary cellular and biochemical signaling molecule... Show details
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Reelin is a large extracellular glycoprotein involved in the development of architectonic patterns, particularly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, where primarily Cajal-Retzius cells... Show details
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eIF4 (Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4) and p70S6K play critical roles in translational regulation. The signaling pathway that regulates p70S6K also regulates the phosphorylation of 4EBP1... Show details
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Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that is secreted by the corpus luteum, into the circulation during the menstrual cycle and throughout pregnancy. During the cycle, it stimulates blood vessel... Show details
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The intercellular Adherens Junctions (AJs) are specialized sub-apical structures that function as principle mediators of cell-cell adhesion. Their disassembly correlates with a loss of cell-cell... Show details
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Proliferation and migration of VSMCs (Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells) in arteries plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and restenosis after angioplasty. A... Show details
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The genome of all living organisms are constantly exposed to exogenous and endogenous DNA-damaging agents and the greatest amount of damage is inflicted by the endogenous agents water and oxygen,... Show details
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Alkylating reagents cause damage to DNA (mainly at O6-G (Guanine), O4-T (Thymine) and O2-T positions in DNA) similar to that induced by ultraviolet irradiation. The bases altered by these reagents... Show details
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UV radiation induces two of the most abundant mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions such as CPD (Cyclobutane-Pyrimidine Dimers) or 6-4PPs (6-4 Pyrimidine Pyrimidone). The most common covalently... Show details
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Irradiation of DNA by UV (Ultraviolet light) causes lesions, such as Cyclobutane-Pyrimidine Dimers or 6-4PPs (6-4 Pyrimidine Pyrimidone). The most common covalently linked adjoining pyrimidines... Show details
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The integrity and accuracy of the DNA is of critical importance to the cell, but the organization of DNA into chromatin in eukaryotic cells afford little protection against formation of DNA base... Show details
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Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), one of the essential micronutrient in the human is obtained chiefly in form of Retinyl Esters from meat, and Carotenoids, such as Beta-Carotene, from plant tissue.... Show details
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The Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins comprises a group of signaling molecules that are activated by a variety of Growth factors, Cytokines, Adhesion molecules, Hormones, Integrins,... Show details
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Rho is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins that play a central role in diverse biological processes such as Actin cytoskeleton organization, Microtubule dynamics, Gene... Show details
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The Rho family of small GTPase proteins comprises CDC42 (Cell Division Cycle-42), Rac, and Rho. Proteins of the Rho/Rac subfamily (Rho proteins) of small GTP-binding proteins function as molecular... Show details
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RNAi (RNA interference) is a cellular pathway of gene silencing in a sequence-specific manner at the mRNA (messenger RNA) level. The basic mechanism behind RNAi is the breaking of a dsRNA... Show details
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Acute gastroenteritis is among the most common illnesses of humankind, and its associated morbidity and mortality are greatest among those at the extremes of age, children and the elderly. In... Show details
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Various lipid molecules serve as second messengers for transducing signals from the cell surface to the cell interior and trigger specific cellular responses. Sphingolipids represent a complex... Show details
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Phagocytic cells are a critical line of defense against infection. The ability of a pathogen to survive and even replicate within phagocytic cells is a potent method of evading the defense... Show details
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SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) is a newly emerged infection in humans characterized by fever and pneumonia. This disease may progress rapidly to ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress... Show details
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The Semaphorins are a family of growth cone guidance molecules, conserved from insects to mammals, which includes proteins strongly implicated in mediating repulsive guidance during... Show details
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The Blood-Testes Barrier (abbreviated as BTB) acts as a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the testes. This barrier is formed by tight and adherens... Show details
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Bacterial pathogens possess highly specialized adaptive processes that enable their penetration of the host intestinal epithelium and cause disease. Once bound to the epithelial surface, bacteria... Show details
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Neuronal growth cones in the developing nervous system are guided to their targets by attractive and repulsive guidance molecules, which include members of the Netrin, Semaphorin, Ephrin, and Slit... Show details
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Gap Junction (GJ) channels span two plasma membranes and are formed by the alignment of two hemichannels, each consisting of an oligomer of structural subunit proteins, called Cxs (Connexins).... Show details
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Myocardial hypertrophy is an adaptational response of the heart to increased work load, but it is also associated with a high risk of cardiac mortality due to its established role in the... Show details
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siRNAs (Small interfering RNAs) have gained much attention for their powerful ability to suppress gene expression. Introduction of dsRNA (double-stranded RNA), that are homologous in sequence to a... Show details
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Introduction of dsRNA (double-stranded RNA), that are homologous in sequence to a gene, has proven to suppress that gene’s expression through a process known as RNAi (RNA interference). The... Show details
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Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are 21-23nt dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) molecules that facilitate potent and sequence-specific gene suppression via the mechanism of RNAi (RNA interference). When... Show details
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Within the vasculature, TGF-Beta (Transforming Growth Factor-Beta) superfamily of secreted polypeptide growth factors play an important role in a variety of pathophysiologic processes, including... Show details
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SOCS (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling) proteins attenuate Cytokine and Tyrosine Kinase receptor signaling pathways (including those that regulate the immune system) by providing a negative... Show details
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All organisms are exposed to a multitude of DNA damaging agents ranging from UV (Ultraviolet) light to fungal metabolites, like Aflatoxin B1. Furthermore, DNA damaging agents, such as ROS... Show details
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Sperm cells are equipped with a limited repertoire of behaviors that exclusively subserve their purpose to fertilize eggs (mature ova). When produced in the testis, sperm are immotile; they... Show details
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The Golgi occupies a key position in the secretory membrane system of cells. Its most fundamental task is to act as a filter between the glycerolipid-rich ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum) and... Show details
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During the final step in formation of a mature, functional mRNA, the introns are removed and exons are spliced together. The discovery that introns are removed during splicing came from electron... Show details
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Cellular Lipid homeostasis in mammalian cells is regulated through the end-product feedback regulation of Lipid synthesis by a family of membrane-bound transcription factors designated SREBPs... Show details
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STATs (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) are a family of cytoplasmic proteins with SH2 (Src Homology-2) domains that act as signal messengers and transcription factors and... Show details
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Protein kinases of the PAK (p21-Activated Kinase) family are found in all eukaryotic species. This family is defined by sequence similarity in the kinase domains and by the occurrence of a... Show details
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Steroid hormones are lipophilic, low-molecular weight compounds derived from Cholesterol that play important physiological roles. The steroid hormones are synthesized mainly by Endocrine Glands... Show details
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Ovarian sex steroid production is essential for Follicular growth and subsequent Ovulation in Xenopus laevis. In the Xenopus ovary, Oocytes are arrested in an immature form in the Cell Cycle at... Show details
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The Plasmodium Merozoite is an ovoid cell and measures approximately 1.5 micron in length and 1 micron in width. The apical end of the Merozoite is a truncated cone-shaped projection demarcated by... Show details
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Covalent modifications of proteins, such as phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitylation, play an important role in most cellular processes because they can cause rapid changes in the... Show details
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The sense of taste plays a critical role in the life and nutritional status of humans and other organisms. Human taste perception may be categorized according to four well known and widely... Show details
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Lymphocytes are one of the five kinds of white blood cells or leukocytes, circulating in the blood. Although mature lymphocytes all look pretty much alike, they are extraordinarily diverse in... Show details
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T-Cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. The TCR (T-Cell Receptor) is a complex of integral membrane proteins that participates in the activation of... Show details
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Nonreceptor PTKs (Protein Tyrosine Kinases) are essential for the development and activation of B-Cells and T-Cells (Ref.1). The Tec kinases represent the second largest family of mammalian... Show details
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The extended growth potential of cancer cells is critically dependent upon the maintenance of functional telomeres, which are specialized chromosomal DNA-protein structures in the terminal regions... Show details
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Unlimited replicative potential and widespread genomic disarray are among the most common characteristics exhibited by human cancer cells. Although several distinct molecular pathways regulate... Show details
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Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures found at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres confer stability to chromosomes by preventing nucleolytic degradation and... Show details
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Cell proliferation in somatic tissues, specification of cell fate during embryogenesis, differentiation and cell death are controlled by a multitude of cell-cell signals and loss of this control... Show details
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During infection, T and B-lymphocytes recognize microbes by means of antigen-specific cell-surface receptors. The humoral immune response is mediated by B cells and the antibodies they produce.... Show details
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Thrombin is a multifunctional serine protease involved in a number of pathophysiological processes that include blood clotting, inflammation, repair processes and tumor metastasis. In brain,... Show details
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Throughout adult life, all blood cells are constantly regenerated from a small pool of hematopoietic stem cells. A single purified stem cell injected into a lethally irradiated host is sufficient... Show details
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TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are key molecules of the innate immune system that recognize molecular patterns on microorganisms and rapidly alert the host to the presence of potentially dangerous... Show details
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TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine, with effects on lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function. TNF has been considered as... Show details
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Members of the TNF (Tumor necrosis factor) receptor superfamily play pivotal roles in numerous biological events in metazoan organisms. Ligand-mediated trimerization by corresponding homo- or... Show details
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Various lipid molecules serve as second messengers for transducing signals from the cell surface to the cell interior and trigger specific cellular responses. Recently, several sphingolipids have... Show details
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The Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (TNFR) super family represents a growing family, with over 20 members having been identified so far in mammalian cells. TNF-Alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha),... Show details
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TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) family members play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, modulation of immune... Show details
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TOB (Transducer of ErbB2), a member of the TOB and BTG (B-cell Translocation Gene) anti-proliferative protein family, negatively regulates the proliferation of Osteoblasts (Ref.1). Bone is formed... Show details
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Efficient ligation of the TCR (T-Cell Receptor) by high-density Antigen can generate a productive T-Cell response and result in cytokine secretion and clonal expansion that is crucial for an... Show details
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During inflammation, which results from tissue injury, infection, or autoimmune diseases, such as RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis), cells release inflammatory mediators that give rise to the symptoms of... Show details
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TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are transmembrane proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system, which recognize invading microbes and activate signaling pathways that launch immune and... Show details
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Teeth develop as ectodermal appendages in vertebrate embryos, and their early development resembles morphologically as well as molecularly other organs such as Hairs and Glands. Interactions... Show details
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TOR (Target of Rapamycin) is a PIKK (Phosphatidylinositol Kinase-related protein Kinase) that controls cell growth and proliferation. In all eukaryotic cells expressing the protein, TOR function... Show details
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The structural and metabolic integrity of bone is maintained through the dynamic process of bone remodeling that results from the coordinate action of bone resorption and the formation of new bone... Show details
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TRAIL (TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand) is a protein consisting of 281 amino acids. It is also called Apo2L. Five proteins, TRAILR1 (DR4), TRAILR2 (DR5/ TRICK2 or KILLER), TRAILR3 (DcR1/... Show details
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Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Transcription can also be defined as a process that... Show details
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rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) is the central component of the Ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. The rRNA is synthesized in the nucleolus. These machines then self-assemble... Show details
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tRNA (Transfer RNA) is a small RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) chain (74-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis... Show details
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Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells that can give rise to several lineages of differentiated cell types. They are the founder cells for every organ, tissue and cell in... Show details
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The migratory properties of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) are indispensable to drive immune responses throughout the body. Leukocytes fall under two categories according to their... Show details
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TREMs (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells) are a family of recently discovered receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily, expressed on various cells of the myeloid lineage, which... Show details
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A recurring theme in neurobiology is the role of a set of molecules that support proliferation, differentiation and survival of neurons. These molecules, collectively referred to as neurotrophins,... Show details
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The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of Tumors. Malignant Liver Tumors fall into two types: Primary and Metastatic. While Primary Liver tumors such as HCC (Hepatocellular... Show details
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TWEAK is a cell surface-associated type II transmembrane protein (249-amino acid) belonging to the TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) superfamily. The protein was named TWEAK for its relatedness to TNF... Show details
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The Proper functioning of a cell requires careful control of the levels of important structural proteins, enzymes, and regulatory proteins. Protein molecules are continuously synthesised and... Show details
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Proteases are expressed by normal cells in tissue remodeling events and also during pathological events such as tumor invasion and metastasis. Some of the proteases including serine proteinases... Show details
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Solar UV (Ultraviolet) irradiation is the most important environmental carcinogen leading to the development of skin cancers. UV irradiation can cause DNA and protein damage, which in part... Show details
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UV (Ultraviolet) radiation is a naturally occurring genotoxic agent and is the primary environmental carcinogen responsible for the development of most skin Cancers. The UV portion of solar... Show details
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UV (Ultraviolet) irradiation is a component of sunlight, which has higher energy than visible light. UV radiation (100 and 400 nm) is divided into at least three different categories based on... Show details
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Vav (Oncogene Vav) family of proteins act as GEFs (Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors) and activators of Rho family GTPases, and are known to orchestrate cytoskeletal changes and cell migration... Show details
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Angiogenesis is important in embryonic development as well as in physiological events and dysregulated angiogenesis is involved in various pathological conditions, like solid tumor growth,... Show details
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VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) is a highly conserved genetic pathway that has evolved from simple to complex systems. The early evolutionary role of VEGF in simple invertebrate systems... Show details
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The formation of blood vessels occurs either by in situ differentiation of endothelial cell precursors (Angioblasts) and association of these cells to form primitive vessels, a process called... Show details
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Virus-induced cytokine production and inflammatory cell activation are instrumental in the development of neurogenic inflammatory responses, and these combined factors increase bronchoconstriction... Show details
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Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol) is a vital and essential micronutrient in the human diet and is required for multiple physiological processes, ranging from vision to embryonic development.... Show details
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Vitamin-C (Ascorbate or Ascorbic Acid) is an essential water-soluble Vitamin, well known for its antiscorbutic and antioxidant functions in humans. Vitamin-C was first identified by virtue of the... Show details
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PI3Ks (Phosphoinositide-3 Kinases) are heterodimeric lipid kinases that are composed of a regulatory and catalytic subunit that are encoded by different genes (Ref.1). Two distinct VPS34P ... Show details
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WNV (West Nile Virus) is a single-stranded positive-polarity RNA virus and the etiologic agent of West Nile encephalitis. It is a member of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group within... Show details
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The development of tissues and organs in multicellular organisms is controlled by the interplay of several signaling pathways that cross talk to provide positional information and induce cell fate... Show details
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The development of tissues and organs in multicellular organisms is controlled by the interplay of several signaling pathways that cross talk to provide positional information and induce cell fate... Show details
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Yersinia pestis, a gram-negative bacillus, which is responsible for causing bubonic plague, is considered by the Center for Disease Control to be one of the top 5 bioterrorist agents. After... Show details